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Intimidation in the second degree 3 counts Menacing 2 counts Awaiting Trial February Status Conference. Use and discharge of a firearm to commit murder during and in relation to a crime of violence 2 counts 18 U. Use and discharge of a firearm to commit murder during and in relation to a crime of violence 18 U. Awaiting Trial February Pretrial conference.

They allegedly beat a handcuffed Hispanic man in their custody. They were federally indicted after ProPublica publicized the incident. Inactive Pending Federal Case. Signorino is the third of three people involved in a spree of vandalism incidents at houses of worship in Indiana. He allegedly helped damage and burglarize a few churches with Kiyomi Brewer, an Identity Evropa member who also burned a synagogue structure with her husband Nolan.

Renzo M Signorino a. Renzo Signorino. Burglary 2 counts Indiana Code. Theft a Indiana Code. Arson damage by fire or explosive a structure used for religious worship a 4 Indiana Code. Burglary Indiana Code. Alan Dale Covington allegedly assaulted three Hispanic men in a tire shop with a pipe while hurling slurs and claiming he wanted to "kill Mexicans. Alan Dale Covington. Hate crime 2 counts 18 U.

Maurice Diggins and Dusty Leo are accused of committing hate crimes by deliberately attacking two Black men in separate incidents in Maine. In both attacks, prosecutors allege that the men shouted racial slurs while attacking and injuring their victims because of their perceived race. Both attacks were completely unprovoked. Conspiracy to commit hate crimes 18 U. Holden Matthews allegedly set fire to three predominantly Black churches in Louisiana. He is facing federal hate crime charges in addition to state arson charges. Holden James Matthews a.

Holden Matthews. Intentional damage to religious property 3 counts 18 U. Using fire to commit a felony 3 counts 18 U. Travis Reinking is accused of killing four people in a Tennessee Waffle House. He was stopped by an act of heroism and detained after an hours-long manhunt. First degree murder 4 counts Tennessee Code. Attempted first degree murder 4 counts Tennessee Code. Weapons possession, employ a firearm during a commission of a dangerous felony 4 counts Tennessee Code. Felony murder 4 counts Tennessee Code.

Weapons possession Tennessee Code. Lisa Marie Burns is accused of vandalizing the same synagogue that William Warden allegedly targeted in his incidents in Surveillance video appears to show Burns throwing bricks through the synagogue's windows. Awaiting Indictment. John Crain has been accused of committing hate crime assault after attacking a convenience store clerk. The clerk was a Sikh man, and Crain is alleged to have attacked him because he thought he was Muslim. John Merrell Crain a. John Crain. Second degree robbery PCF enh. PC d , PC Battery with serious bodily injury PCF enh.

Violate civil rights by force or threat of force PC Awaiting Appeal. Scott Wayne Smith pleaded no contest to a charge of indimidation for threatening to kill a gay man in Southwest Portland. Scott Wayne Smith a. Scott Smith. James Fields is murdered Heather Heyer and injuring dozens more in a hate crime in Charlottesville, VA when he drove his car into a crowd of counter-protesters on a closed street during Unite the Right in August of Former Attorney General Sessions also described it as an act of domestic terrorism.

James Alex Fields a. Life each count, all concurrent but consecutive to count 1. James Fields murdered Heather Heyer and injured dozens more in a hate crime in Charlottesville, VA when he drove his car into a crowd of counter-protesters on a closed street during Unite the Right in August of Andrew Ramsey is recently accused of assaulting a Sikh man in a hate crime act in Marion County, Oregon. Andrew David Ramsey a. Andrew Ramsey. Strangulation Nolan Brewer painted swastikas and iron crosses on an Indiana synagogue and used incendiary devices near it.

He was arrested along with his 17 year old wife, Kiyomi. Nolan Brewer Suspected affiliations: Identity Evropa. Conspiracy to violate rights 18 U. Kiyomi Brewer, along with her husband, Nolan Brewer, vandalized a synagogue structure by painting a Nazi logo on it and lighting a fire. Nolan was sentenced to federal prison for a hate crime in the same incident. Kiyomi is alleged to have also vandalized other houses of worship with a friend, Renzo Signorino, as well. She was a minor at the time of the incident but was tried as an adult. Kiyomi Zeporah Brewer a. Kiyomi Brewer Suspected affiliations: Identity Evropa.

Arson d Indiana Code. Chadwick Grubbs was convicted in a later case of threatening a Jewish community center by way of letters sent from an Oshkosh jail. He pleaded guilty to three federal counts, which added 36 months of prison time to his existing state sentences for threatening law enforcement officers and stalking in this and a related case.

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Chadwick E Grubbs a. Chadwick Grubbs Chad E Grubbs. Battery or threat to judge, prosecutor, or law enforcement officer Rick Simmons is accused of leaving a threatening voicemail on Senator Cory Booker's voicemail, calling him racial slurs and referencing guns. Rick Lynn Simmons a. Rick Simmons. Interstate communications with threat to injure 18 U. Matthew Lipp was one of four teenagers charged with spraypainting racial epithets and swastikas at Glenelg High School in Maryland. They were charged with hate crimes and all pleaded with agreement of the facts.

Matthew J Lipp a. Matthew Lipp. Aydene Militello was convicted of a hate crime for hurling verbal abuse at a Black woman in traffic, and then subsequently in a Wal Mart parking lot, in DeKalb County, IL. She was convicted in a bench trial. Andrew Oswalt is an OSU student who was convicted for hate crime charges for targeting and intimidating activists by putting racist bumper stickers on their cars. He is appealing this conviction and in this case is facing additional charges for a similar incident. Andrew Joseph Oswalt a. Andrew Oswalt. Chadwick Grubbs was convicted of threatening a Jewish community center by way of letters sent from an Oshkosh jail.

He pleaded guilty to three federal counts, which added 36 months of prison time to his existing state sentences for threatening law enforcement officers and stalking. Stalking enh. Bail jumping enh. Disorderly conduct enh. Battery James Jackson drove from Baltimore to New York City, where he found an older Black man and stabbed him to death with a sword. Two days later, he turned himself in, claiming he wanted to go on a killing spree of Black men to prevent interracial relationships.

James Harris Jackson a. James Jackson. Murder in the first degree as an act of terrorism PL Murder in the second degree as an act of terrorism PL Murder in the second degree as a hate crime PL Criminal possession of a weapon in the fourth degree 9 counts PL Tyler Curtiss was one of four teenagers charged with spraypainting racial epithets and swastikas at Glenelg High School in Maryland. Tyler J Curtiss a. Tyler Curtiss. Seth Taylor was one of four teenagers charged with spraypainting racial epithets and swastikas at Glenelg High School in Maryland.

Adam Purinton pleaded guilty to murdering an Indian man in a Kansas diner in mid He allegedly mistook his victim as Iranian and shouted "get out of my country. Adam W. Purinton a. Adam Purinton. Use of a firearm in a crime of violence 18 U. Nathan Scates is a security guard alleged to have injured someone with a gunshot in Oregon in August of In a separate case, he is also alleged to have shouted ethnic slurs at people, injuring a Hispanic woman with a club, and then deploying pepper spray while running away, injuring other bystanders.

Assault in the Third Degree Unlawful use of a weapon 4 counts Menacing 4 counts Recklessly endangering another person 2 counts Disorderly conduct in the second degree Unauthorized use of a vehicle 2 counts Fleeing or attempting to elude Vincent O'Sullivan was charged in another case with hate crime threats and found guilty by jury for threatening to kill a gay man and blow up the store where he worked. In this case, he was found guilty of petty theft and sentenced to serve his suspended sentence due to his hate crime conviction.

Vincent Joseph O'Sullivan, Jr. Vincent O'Sullivan. Petty theft a California Penal Code. Unauthorized use of a vehicle Possession of a burglary tool or device Unlawful possession of methamphetamine Criminal trespass in the first degree Brandon Lecroy pleaded guilty to conspiracy to commit murder for hire when he tried calling the KKK to have his neighbor, a Black man, killed. Court documents show that he also intended to use his contact to commit violence against another individual.

The number was actually for a Federal informant, and Lecroy was subsequently sentenced to ten years in prison. Brandon Cory Lecroy a. Brandon Lecroy. Vincent O'Sullivan was charged with hate crime threats and found guilty by jury for threatening to kill a gay man and blow up the store where he worked. Criminal threats, enh. These two women livestreamed themselves vandalizing an Arizona mosque.

Tahnee Savanna Gonzales a. Disorderly conduct A3 Arizona Revised Statutes.

Dragon Island (The Comet's Path)

Aggravated criminal damage A1 Arizona Revised Statutes. Burglary in the third degree—unlawful entry A1 Arizona Revised Statutes.

Halley's comet orbit 1801-2129

Elizabeth Ann Dauenhauer a. Obstruction or attempted obstruction of persons in the free exercise of religious beliefs 3 counts 18 U. Making a threat to injure or destroy religious property by means of fire or explosive 18 U. Mailing threatening communications 2 counts 18 U. Mailing threatening communications 18 U. Adams was charged with property crimes and violent threats against a Jewish shopper. He was on probation for a conviction for a weapons charge. He pleaded guilty to violating civil rights by force, but hate crime charges were stricken. Gregory William Adams a.

Gregory Adams. Violating civil rights PC Hate crime 2 counts PC Jeremy Campbell pleaded guilty to malicious harassment after beating a Black man and using racial slurs in a Washington bar. He was also charged with possession of methamphetamine. Jeremy Evans Campbell a. Jeremy Campbell. Malicious Harassment 9A. Assault in the second degree 9A. John Carothers set fire to Robert Miller, a Black man, in an assisted living home, killing him. An intercepted letter from him in jail reveals that he may have had a white supremacy-related motive.

John Daniel Carothers a. First Degree Murder Tennessee Code. Aggravated Arson Tennessee Code. Reckless Endangerment 8 counts Tennessee Code. Joshua Shaffer was one of four teenagers charged with spraypainting racial epithets and swastikas at Glenelg High School in Maryland. Intimidation in the first degree 3 counts Criminal mischief in the third degree 2 counts Theft in the third degree Theft in the first degree Unlawful entry into a vehicle In this case, he was accused of a jailhouse assault, but charges were dismissed.

Resisting arrest Giving false information to a police officer Awaiting Trial November Jury Trial. Gregory Ramos is accused of murdering his mother and covering up the scene. Gregory Ramos. First degree murder Grand theft auto Abuse of a dead human body Open November Jury Trial.

Brian Porras, along with Dylan Ceglarek, is accused of helping their friend, Gregory Ramos, cover up Ramos's alleged murder of his mother. Brian A Porras a. Brian Porras. Accessory after the fact to a capital felony Dylan Ceglarek, along with Brian Porras, is accused of helping their friend, Gregory Ramos, cover up Ramos's alleged murder of his mother. Dylan R. Ceglarek a. Dylan Ceglarek. Awaiting Trial September Status Check. Corey Johnson is accused of stabbing to death a year old and severely injuring two others at a sleepover.

Corey Johnson. Attempted Murder in the first degree with a deadly weapon 2 counts Jakub Zak is accused of illegally possessing firearms and ammunition in April of He allegedly was active with the user name "Hussar" in a Discord chat with members of the white supremacist group Patriot Front. Jakub Zak a. Hussar Suspected affiliations: Patriot Front suspected. An apparent member of RuSA, a sovereign-citizen movement, Clark apparently shared QAnon and other far-right conspiracy theories. Aggravated arson of five or more inhabited structures Arson of inhabited structure or dwelling b , Arson of a forest c , Criminal threats a California Penal Code.

Resisting executive officer 2 counts 69 California Penal Code. Awaiting Evaluation October Status Conference. Patrick Carlineo allegedly threatened to shoot Rep. Ilhan Omar on a voicemail left on a staffer's mailbox because of her Muslim faith. The government has rejected his initial plea. Patrick W. Carlineo, Jr. Patrick Carlineo. Threatening to assault and murder a United States official 18 U. Devon Arthurs was the roommate of Brandon Russell and killed his other two roommates who he claimed were planning terrorist attacks against civilian targets.

Devon Arthurs Suspected affiliations: Atomwaffen. Murder in the first degree, premeditated with a firearm 2 counts Kidnapping with a firearm 3 counts Awaiting Trial October Pre-trial Hearing. Dallas Frazier was caught on film appearing to assault an older man who was protesting a Trump rally. Frazier allegedly left the passenger seat of a pickup truck and assaulted the counter-protester.

Assault Ohio Revised Code. Awaiting Indictment October Preliminary Examination. Corbin Kauffman is alleged to have made several threats against Jewish, Muslim, and Black communities on the fringe social media site, Minds. He is also alleged to have vandalized a Chabad house in Maryland. Interstate communications with intent to injure the person of another 18 U.

Awaiting Preliminary Hearing October Preliminary hearing. Authorities say he has multiple white supremacist tattoos. Roger Melvin Tackett. Joffre Cross is a Patriot Front leader with a prior felony conviction for stealing weapons from the Army. He is a known affiliate of William Fears. He has been charged with multiple counts of illegally possessing weapons and body armor as a felon. Joffre James Cross a. Christopher Ryan Ponte a. Chris Ponte Suspected affiliations: Patriot Prayer.

Riot Recklessly endangering another person Awaiting Trial October Oral Ruling. Matthew Neumann is accused of two counts of murder after two bodies were found in a burn pit on a property where a trailer belonging to his business was found. His social media profiles allegedly include Nazi and Confederate images.

Matthew J Neumann a. Matthew Neumann. First degree reckless homicide with a deadly weapon First degree reckless homicide Hiding a corpse 2 counts Awaiting Indictment October Pre-trial. William Shutt is an Army veteran who allegedy shot two men in a vehicle in St. During his bond hearing, a detective testified that he had evidence of connections to the "alt-right," and that his phone contained video of the Christchurch, NZ shooting.

William John Shutt a. William Shutt. Murder in the second degree with a firearm Attempted murder in the second degree with a firearm Joey Derek Christian was the subject of a viral video where he appears to harass a retail worker using Islamophobic language. He was charged with operating a motor vehicle while intoxicated. Joey Derek Christian. Driving while intoxicated Open October Criminal Trial. Janay Smith is an alleged Moorish sovereign citizen accused of dragging a police officer for a short time during a traffic stop. Janay Rebecca Smith a. Janay Smith Jahnay Rebekkah Bey.

Dmitriy Andreychenko is accused of terroristic threats after he walked through a Walmart heavily armed shortly after the El Paso Walmart shooting. He was held at gunpoint by an armed off-duty firefighter. Andreychenko claims he was running a social experiment about the second amendment. Dmitriy N Andreychenko a. Dmitriy Andreychenko. Terroristic threat — second degree Awaiting Sentencing November Sentencing. Graham Williamson burned a cross outside the home of a Black community in Mississippi. Criminal interference with housing rights 42 U.

Conspiracy to use fire and carry explosive to commit a felony 18 U. Awaiting Trial November Pretrial Conference. James Simpson is accused of raping and stabbing a woman, who was able to escape by climbing out of a window. He reportedly has swastika tattoos and a tattoo of the white supremacist gang Family Values. James W Simpson a. James Simpson Suspected affiliations: Family Values.

First degree aggravated rape Armed criminal action First degree assault Resisting arrest for a felony Passarelli is accused of chasing down a Muslim man and shooting him twice in the back, killing him. Dustin E Passarelli a. Dustin Passarelli. Murder 1 Indiana Code. Awaiting Trial December Pretrial Conference. Richard Clayton was arrested for allegedly posting a threat online referencing a potential attack at a local Walmart. Investigators claim he has a history of posting threats and holds a white supremacist ideology. Richard Dean Clayton a. Richard Clayton. Written threats to kill or do bodily harm Awaiting Trial August Conference Call.

Andrew Vrba is one of four people accused in the murder of Ally Steinfeld, a transgender teenager. Her body was found mutilated and burned. Andrew J Vrba a. Andrew Vrba. Abandonment of a corpse Jeffrey Richards was arrested on drug and weapons charges. He was informed on by multiple informants as being a drug supplier in the Western NY area, and on arrest the FBI found several improvised explosive devices on his property. Narcotics conspiracy 21 U. Possession with intent to distribute acetyl fentanyl and fentanyl 21 U. Possession with intent to distribute cocaine 21 U.

Possession with intent to distribute marijuana 21 U. Possession with intent to distribute alprazolam 21 U. Maintaining a drug-involved premises 21 U. Manufacturing controlled substances creating a substantial risk of harm to human life 21 U. Unlawfully making a destructive device 26 U. Unlawfully possessing a destructive device 26 U. Possession of firearms in furtherance of drug trafficking crimes 18 U. Possession of a stolen firearm 18 U. Demetrius Alexander Brown is accused of a murder following a dispute at an auto repair shop.

Brown is a self-proclaimed sovereign citizen. Demetrius Alexander Brown a. Demetrius Brown. Sale or delivery of pistol to unlawful person South Carolina Code of Laws. Possessing weapon during violent crime South Carolina Code of Laws. David Steven Bell was captured on video shoving and violently punching a young Black girl at an Asheville mall, knocking her out. He was arrested on misdemeanor assault on a minor. David Steven Bell a. David Bell.

Douglass Pruitt is accussed of a domestic violence incident involving kidnapping and robbery in late He is known to police and has connections to white supremacist gangs. Douglass Allan Pruitt a. Douglass Pruitt. Corporal injury to relationship partner with great bodily injury—domestic violence PC Assault with a deadly weapon with great bodily injury—domestic violence PC a 1 -F and and PC Murder South Carolina Code of Laws.

McMahon has a long history of harassing people online, particularly those opposed to his self-admitted fascist beliefs. In this case, he is alleged to have threatened a candidate for Charlottesville City Council. Daniel McMahon a. Interference with a candidate for elective office 18 U. Threats in interstate commerce 18 U.

Michael Brogan pleaded guilty to threatening a United States senator. He left a threatening voice mail expressing support for President Trump and antagonism over the senator's stance on reproductive rights. Awaiting Competency Re-evaluation. James L. Jordan is a self-proclaimed sovereign citizen who had been hiking the Appalachian Trail when he is alleged to have attack several people. He had previously been arrested and cited for his conduct, and hikers had been alerted to him. He's being charged in the special maritime jurisdiction of the United States. Jordan a. James Jordan Sovereign. Assault with intent to commit murder 18 U.

Murder 18 U. Frank Maya is allegedly vandalized some trash cans and tried painting a swastika on a building. While being arrested, he assaulted a female police officer, who sustained a shoulder injury. Frank L Maya a. Frank Maya. Assault in the second degree on a peace officer 1 f Colorado Revised Statutes. Criminal mischief 1 , 4 a Colorado Revised Statutes. Assault in the second degree on a peace officer 1 c Colorado Revised Statutes. Wesley Gilreath was arrested on charges of allegedly possessing child pornography.

He was previously known to federal investigators because he had previously allegedly posted guides online for "hunting" Jews, Muslims, refugees, and others. Wesley David Gilreath a. Wesley Gilreath. Possession of child pornography 2 counts 18 U. Not Mentally Competent. Malachi Qaadir Dorns is accused of stabbing his brother to death and seriously injuring his mother. A self-identified sovereign citizen, he was ruled incompetent to stand trial pending evaluation.

Malachi Qaadir Dorns. Malice Murder A Georgia Code. Felony Murder C Georgia Code. Aggravated Assault 2 counts Georgia Code. Jordan Jereb made headlines in when he claimed credit for the Parkland school shooting along with his group, Republic of Florida. A subsequent search of his property turned up weapons he was forbidden to possess as part of his probation conditions for a felony conviction for extortion.

Jordan Joseph Jereb a. Jordan Jereb Suspected affiliations: Republic of Florida. Extortion by threats Robert Peete was arrested at a Berkeley protest for allegedly hitting a counter-protester with a club. Records show his charges were dismissed in March Eric Oelkers was recently re-arrested for an alleged probation violation following a conviction for Escape, which itself followed on the heels of a federal firearms conviction.

He is a known activist in the Portland area. Eric Floyd Oelkers a. Escape 18 U. Dennis Duane Vann is an alleged sovereign citizen who allegedly led police on on a chase and a standoff where he is accused of having a pig-shaped explosive device. Threats of violence, reckless disregard of risk Fleeing a police officer in a motor vehicle Laquisha Jones pleaded guilty to beating an elderly Mexican man with a brick.

She was on probation from a previous incident regarding threats. Attempted murder A California Penal Code. Abuse of elder B 1 California Penal Code. Bradley Kincheloe was convicted of possession and intent to sell methamphetamine. He has a large tattoo of a swastika on his back. Bradley Michael Kincheloe a. Bradley Kincheloe Suspected affiliations: Aryan Circle. The victim suffered a brain bleed and a broken orbital.

He also stands accused of illegally possessing a weapon in California. In this case he was arrested for driving a vehicle illegally on federal land, and had an illegal weapon with him. Kyle Sean Chapman a. Disorderly conduct 36 CFR 2. Operating a motor vehicle off designated roads and parking area 36 CFR 4. Cody Henderson was accused of using a gun to steal a phone from a child. He has a swastika tattooed on his face. Cody Leon Henderson a. Cody Henderson. Robbery with a weapon Chris Ponte is a Patriot Prayer regular in Portland.

He has been filmed at many events throughout the Portland area and has run afoul of firearms possession laws. In this case, he successfully sued to have his conviction vacated. Russell Courtier ran down and killed, Larnell Bruce, Jr. He confessed to the crime and has affiliations with a white power gang.

His girlfriend, Colleen Hunt, pleaded guilty to manslaughter in the same incident. Russell Orlando Courtier a. Felony Murder Failure to perform duties of driver to injured persons Intimidation in the first degree Jaffe was at a PMAZ-organized "free speech" rally when he allegedly attempted to grab a woman's cell phone from her hand. His charges were dropped after completing a diversion program. Russell Jaffe a. Assault Arizona Criminal Code. Hardy Lloyd was accused of murdering a woman in Pittsburgh, but was acquitted.

He was later convicted on this federal weapons charge, which has seen him violate his probation multiple times. In the latest incident, he is alleged to have made threats against the predominantly-Jewish Squirrel Hill neighborhood of Pittsburgh, and the US Attorney's Office is seeking to revoke his supervised release. Hardy Carroll Lloyd a. Cody Henderson is accused of using a gun to steal a phone from a child. Child abuse False imprisonment Scott Beierle faced a battery charge in that was dropped by prosecutors after undergoing pretrial intervention.

Beierle later shot dead two women at a Tallahassee yoga studio before killing himself, in what is believed to be an incel-related crime. Scott Paul Beierle a. Scott Beierle. Leaving the scene of accident involving unattended vehicle and South Carolina Code of Laws. Jennifer Gross is accused of having hundreds of chemicals in her boyfriend Michael Anderson's basement apartment, apparently for making meth. Investigators found Nazi paraphernalia in the residence. Jennifer Lynn Gross a.

Jennifer Gross. Possession of drug paraphernalia Disorderly conduct Resisting or obstructing an officer Emmanuel Aranda pleaded guilty to attempted first degree murder for throwing a stranger's young child off a third-story balcony at the Mall of America. The child suffered serious injuries but survived. Aranda was reportedly angry at women and wanted to exact revenge.

Emmanuel Deshawn Aranda a. Emmanuel Aranda. Murder in the first degree, premeditated, attempt to commit Benjamin Bogard is a suspected Atomwaffen member who was interviewed by FBI agents regarding threats of mass violence he posted online. During a search of his phone, agents allegedly found child pornography. Benjamin Joost Bogard a. Benjamin Bogard Suspected affiliations: Atomwaffen. Possession of child pornography 18 U. John Kless is left multiple voicemails with members of Congress using multiple bigoted slurs and death threats. John Joseph Kless a. John Kless.

Jennifer Gross was accused of having hundreds of chemicals in her boyfriend Michael Anderson's basement apartment, apparently for making meth. Misappropriate ID info, repeater enh. James Thomas Grigsby is one of four people accused in the murder of Ally Steinfeld, a transgender teenager. James Thomas Grigsby a. James Grigsby. Thomas Bolin was arrested after being investigated for statements made on Facebook in support of the Christchurch, NZ shooter. During the investigation, he lied to FBI agents about whether he possessed firearms.

Thomas Alonzo Bolin a. False statements 18 U. A multiple felon, he is pleaded guilty of illegally possessing a weapon in contravention of a court order, after police found him with it while arresting him for taking his vehicle in a prohibited area of federal land. Maria Terry pleaded guilty to threatening a Planned Parenthood clinic via Twitter. She has a prior guilty plea for property damage and her probation is being reviewed. Court records show a history of restraining orders, including against Planned Parenthood.

Maria E Terry a. First degree property damage Felon in possession of a firearm Felon in possession of a firearm 2 counts Heimbach is a well-known leader of far-right neo-Nazi movements. In this incident, which spelled the end of the Traditionalist Workers Party, he was accused of assaulting his wife and his second-in-command at their compound in Paoli, Indiana. The complex relationship dynamics regarding the event led to widespread mockery online.

Matthew Warren Heimbach a. Battery c 1 Indiana Code. Making false statement to law enforcement John Jacob Hasay was convicted of illegally possessing a machine gun. He had allegedly posted racist and anti-Semitic statements online. Court documents suggest he was a neo-Nazi. Illegal possession of a machine gun 18 U. Possession of an unregistered firearm 26 U.

Isis Schauer is one of four people accused in the murder of Ally Steinfeld, a transgender teenager. Isis Kailinn Schauer a. Isis Schauer. Second degree murder Briana Calderas is one of four people accused in the murder of Ally Steinfeld, a transgender teenager. Concealing a felony Tampering with evidence in felony prosecution Russell Courtier is accused of running down and killing a Black teenager. Attempt to commit a class B felony Michael Anderson is accused of having hundreds of chemicals in his basement apartment, apparently for making meth.

Investigators found Nazi paraphernalia in his residence. His girlfriend, Jennifer Gross, was also arrested during the raid. Michael Tracy Anderson a. Disorderly conduct, domestic abuse enh. Criminal damage to property, domestic abuse enh. Possession of drug paraphernalia to manufacture, compound, convert, produce, or store methamphetamine Assault, causes bodily injury, family violence He is pleaded guilty to assaulting a counter-demonstrator with a pole or stick.

His first trial ended in a mistrial, and he surprisingly pleaded guilty shortly before his second trial was scheduled to begin. William Scott Planer a. Criminal trespass in the second degree Brendan Smith was charged for allegedy putting up posters on public buildings.

The posters were for neo-Nazi organization Patriot Front. His misdemeanor charge was dismissed. Brendan Colin Smith a. Brendan Smith Suspected affiliations: Patriot Front. Heon Jong "Hank" Yoo became famous—and was mocked—for being a Korean white supremacist. A video of him brandishing weapons while singing Dixie became popular online. In , he was convicted of illegal possession of firearms. Yoo is represented himself pro se. Heon Jong Yoo a.

In the stores, along the street, on the cars, at the club, the alert reporter gathers many an important news item. The merchant, the cabman, the preacher, the barkeeper, the patrolman, the thug, the club-man, the porter, all make valuable acquaintances, as they are able often to give one stories or clues to the solution of problems that are all but invaluable to the paper.

And such facts as they present are given solely because of their interest in the reporter. One should guard zealously, however, against betraying the confidence of such friends. The reporter must distinguish the difference between publishing a story gained from a stranger by dint of shrewd interviewing, and printing the same story obtained from a fellow club-man more or less confidentially over the cigars and coffee.

The stranger's information the reporter must publish. No newspaper man has a right to suppress news obtained while on duty or to accept the confidence of anyone, if by such confidence he is precluded the right to publish certain facts. The publication or non-publication of such news is a matter for the city editor's decision alone. But a story obtained confidentially from a friend at the club or in the home of a neighbor may not be used except with the express permission of those persons.

Many a man has seen himself and his paper scooped because he was too honorable to betray the trust of his friends; but such a single scoop is worth nothing in comparison with the continued confidence of one's friends and their later prejudiced assistance. Personal and professional integrity is a newspaper man's first principle. Starting for a Story. The reporter's situation changes radically, however, when he is sent for a story and is told merely that somebody at Grove and Spring streets has been shot. There are four corners at Grove and Spring streets, and the shooting may have occurred, not on the corner, but at the second or third house from any one of the four corners, and maybe in a rear apartment.

On such an assignment one should have on hand cards and plenty of paper and pencils. Every reporter should keep several sharp, soft lead pencils. Folded copy paper is sufficient for note-taking. The stage journalist appears always with conspicuous pencil and notebook, but the practical newspaper man displays these insignia of his profession as little as possible. A neat, engraved business card is necessary because often it is the only means of admittance to a house.

Use of the Telephone. If the house has a telephone, the reporter may sometimes use this means of getting information, but this step generally is not advisable, as the telephone cannot be trusted on important stories. A person can ring off too easily if he prefers not to answer questions, and his gestures and facial expressions, emphasizing or denying the statements that his lips make, cannot be seen.

The telephone is rather to be used for running down rumors and tips, for obtaining [Pg 43 ] unimportant interviews, and for getting stories which the persons concerned wish to have appear in the paper. If in this case the reporter has doubts about the shooting, he may telephone to a nearby bakery or meat market to verify the rumor, but he had better not telephone the house.

Let him go there in person. City Maps. If he is in a hurry, he may examine the map on his way to the car line, or while he is calling a taxi. Actually he ought to know the city so well that he need not consult a map at all and the man whose ambition is to be a first-class reporter will soon acquire that knowledge , but to a beginner, a map is valuable. Finding the Place. Unless the shooting is one that for some reason has been hushed up, the policeman will know all the main details. Usually, too, if approached courteously, he will be glad to point out the house and tell what he knows. If he knows nothing or pretends ignorance, the reporter must seek the house itself; nor must he be discouraged if he fails to get his information at the first, second, or third house, nor indeed after he has inquired at every door in the adjacent blocks.

There are still left the neighborhood stores,—the groceries, bakeries, saloons, meat markets, and barber shops,—and maybe in the last one of these, the barber shop, a customer with his coat off, waiting for a shave, will remember that he heard somebody say a man by the name of Davis was shot "around the corner.

Regular Reports to the City Editor. While in the drugstore he may call up the city editor and report progress on the story. When away on an assignment there is need always of reporting regularly, particularly if one is working on an afternoon paper. Some city editors require a man to telephone every hour whether he has any news or not. A big story may break and the city editor may have nobody to handle it, or the office may have fuller information about the story which the reporter is investigating. Besides, on an afternoon paper where an edition is appearing every hour or so, every fresh detail, though small, may be of interest to readers following the story.

Retracing One's Work. He must go back to the patrolman on the beat and inquire if any person by the name of Davis has recently moved into the neighborhood,—since, for instance, the last city directory was published. Failing again, he must make once more the rounds of the houses on or near the four corners and of the neighborhood shops, inquiring in each instance for Mr. If there is a grocery store, a bakery, or a laundry in the vicinity, he must be sure to inquire there, particularly at the laundry, as the proprietors of those places are the first to get the names of newcomers in a neighborhood.

The laundries must have names and addresses for deliveries, while housewives exchange gossip daily in the other places between purchases of vegetables and yeast cakes. Need of Determination. There is never a story without some way to unearth it, and every such story is potentially a great one. Inquiry at the corner houses in the four adjoining blocks may disclose a Mr.

Inquiry of the children skating along the sidewalk may unearth him. But in any event, the reporter must not give up until he has investigated every available clue. The city editor does not want and will not take excuses for failures to bring back stories; he wants stories. Gaining Access for an Interview. Davis at all who was shot, but Mr. Davidson, who may be found three blocks down at Spring and Grosvenor streets, his task now immediately changes to gaining access to Mr. Davidson, or to Mrs. Davidson, or to some one in the building who can give him the facts. Here is where his card may serve.

If Mr. Davidson has rooms in a hotel, he may send his card up by a bellboy; if in a club, he may give it to the porter at the door. If the house at Spring and Grosvenor streets, however, is plainly one where a card would be out of place, he may simply inquire for Mr. It is not at all improbable that Mr. Davidson was only slightly injured and one may be permitted to see him. If, however, the person answering the door states that Mr. Davidson cannot be seen, as he was injured that morning, the reporter may express his interest and inquire the cause, thus making a natural and easy step toward what newspaper men generally consider the most difficult phase of reporting,—the interview.

Requirements for Interviewing. Technically, an interview is a consultation with a man of rank for the sake [Pg 46 ] of publishing his opinions. In practice, however, because the term man of rank is hazy in its inclusiveness, the word has come to mean consultation with any person for the purpose of reporting his views. And in this sense the word interview will be used in this volume.

A Pleasing Presence. In the term are included immaculacy of person and linen, as well as tact, courtesy, and all those qualities that make for ease of mind while conversing. Clothes may not make a man, but the lack of them will ruin a reporter. An unshaven face or a collar of yesterday's wear will do a newspaper man so much harm in some persons' eyes that all the shrewd questions he can ask during the interview will be of little value. Lack of tact in approaching or addressing a man will have the same unfortunate result. Many reporters think that by resorting to flattery they can induce men to talk; then they wonder why they fail.

A reporter must keep in mind that the persons he interviews usually possess as keen intellects as his own and mere flattery will be quickly detected and resented. He must never forget that he is a gentleman , no matter what the other person may be. He cannot afford to permit himself even to become angry. Anger does not pay, for two reasons. In the first place, when a reporter loses his temper, he immediately loses his head.

He becomes so absorbed in his own emotions that he cannot question shrewdly or remember clearly what is said by the man from whom he would extract information. In the second place, anger creates hostility, and a hostile man or woman not only does not willingly give information, but will be an enemy of the paper forever afterward. Always, therefore, the interviewer must be courteous, knowing that kindness begets [Pg 47 ] kindness and that the other fellow, if approached rightly, will respond in the end to his own mood.

Asking Questions. The reporter must rely largely on himself. As a rule, however, the personal equation should be considered. Every man is interested in himself and his work, and the interviewer often may start him talking by beginning on work. The essential thing is to get some topic that will launch him into easy, natural conversation.

Then, with his man started, the interviewer may well keep silent. Only a cub reporter will interrupt the natural flow of conversation for the sake merely of giving his own views. If the man runs too far afield, the reporter may guide the conversation back to the original topic; but he may well subject himself to much irrelevant talk for the sake of guiding his informer back gracefully to the topic of interest. Persons Seeking Advertisement. Concerning the first little need be said. Such persons talk because they enjoy seeing their names in print.

It is a marvel how many men and women object with seeming sincerity to their names being made public property, yet at the same time give the reporter full details for the story he wishes and hand him their cards so that he may spell their names correctly. Many such celebrities will stand for any kind of interview, so that the reporter need only determine in advance what he would have them say to make a good story. With them advertisement is so much personal gain; they are glad to accede to any sort of odd statement for the sake of possible public notice. Such persons are to be avoided; advertisements are written by the advertising manager or his helpers and fixed prices are charged.

Persons Refusing to Talk. Men who will not talk are usually well acquainted with the world. Sometimes they may be forced into making statements by asking them questions that will almost certainly arouse their anger and so make them speak hastily, but the reporter himself must be doubly careful in such cases to keep his own temper sweet. Oftentimes such men, particularly society criminals and others who possess an especial fear of having their wrong-doing known among their friends, try to keep from being written up by saying they are unwilling to make any kind of statement for publication, but that they will do so in court if anything is published about them.

The reporter will not let such a threat daunt him. He will get the facts and present them to the city editor with the person's hint of criminal action, then let the city editor determine the problem of publication. Persons Divulging Secrets. Probably the most ticklish situation in all reporting is here. To make a person tell what he knows without knowing that he is telling is the pinnacle of the art of interviewing. As Mr. Richard Harding Davis has so exactly expressed it:.

Reporters become star reporters because they observe things that other people miss and because they do not let it appear that they have observed them. When the great man who is being interviewed blurts out that which is indiscreet but most important, the cub reporter says: "That's most interesting, sir. I'll [Pg 49 ] make a note of that. But the star reporter receives the indiscreet utterance as though it bored him; and the great man does not know he has blundered until he reads of it the next morning under screaming headlines.

It is for such reasons that a quick perception of news even in chance remarks is a requisite for interviewing. If one does not grasp instantly the value of a bit of information, the expression of his face or his actions will give him away later when a full realization of the worth of the news comes to him, or else he will not be able to recall precisely the facts given. Retentive Memory. Fifty per cent of those interviewed will be frightened at the sight of a notebook.

And all men become cautious when they realize that their statements are being taken down word for word. The reporter must correlate properly and keep firmly in mind the facts gleaned in the interview, then get as quickly as possible to some place where he can record what he has learned. Many an interviewer will listen a half-hour without taking a note, then spend the next half-hour on a horse-block or a curb writing down what the person interviewed has said. Other reporters with shorter memories carry pencil stubs and bits of specially cut white cardboard, and while looking the interviewed man in the eye, take down statistics and characteristic phrases on the cards.

Some even, as on the stage and in the moving pictures, take occasional notes on their cuffs,—all this in an effort to make the one interviewed talk unrestrainedly. Use of Shorthand. Its use in interviewing and in general news reports should not be too much encouraged, even when [Pg 50 ] a man is entirely willing to have his exact words recorded. Often it deadens the presentation of news. Shorthand has its value as far as accuracy and record of occasional statements are concerned, and may well be used, but its too faithful use has a tendency to take from news stories the imagination that is necessary for a complete and truthful presentation.

The stenographic reporter becomes so intent upon the words of the person he is quoting that he misses the spirit of the interview and is liable to produce a formal, lifeless story. The reporter may well use shorthand as a walking cane, but not as a crutch.


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Precise Questions in Interviews. These questions the person must answer definitely or else evade, in either case furnishing story material. But whether a reporter comes armed with such a list of questions or not, he must at least have definitely in mind the exact purpose of his visit and the precise questions he wants answered. In the majority of cases the reason that interviewers meet with such unwelcome receptions from great men is that the latter are too busy to waste time with pottering reporters.

Certainly the men themselves say so.

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President Wilson declares that of the visitors to the White House not one in ten knows precisely why he has come, states definitely what he wants, and leaves promptly when he has finished. Such persons are an annoyance to busy men and women, and the newspaper man who can dispatch quickly the business of his visit will more likely meet with a favorable reception next time. Learning a Man's Career. Some men seem annoyed when asked to explain technical terms or to review well-known incidents in their lives.


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  • Such facts may be obtained from the files of the morgue, from encyclopedias, from the Who's Who volumes, and from local men associated in the same kind of work. Frequently one will find it advisable to consult the city editor and other members of the staff, as well as local or less known men, by way of preparation for interviewing a prominent visitor. Ability to Detect Falsehood. All persons who talk for publication speak with a purpose. Sometimes they talk for self-exploitation; occasionally they wish to pay a grudge against another man.

    Sometimes their purpose is what they say it is; often it is not. Sometimes they tell the exact truth; frequently they do not, even when they think they are speaking truthfully. It may seem odd, but it is true that comparatively few of the persons one questions about even the most commonplace occurrences can give unbiased reports of events.

    They were too much excited over the affair to observe accurately, or they are too much prejudiced for or against the persons involved to witness judicially. The reporter, therefore, must take into consideration their mental caliber and every possible motive they may have for acting or speaking as they do. If the person who met the reporter a moment ago at Mr. Davidson's door was his wife and she refused to talk about the shooting, or said he was not shot, she evidently had a motive for her statement.

    And if the woman next door recounts with too [Pg 52 ] much relish and in too high-pitched tones the cat-and-dog life of the Davidsons or their declared intentions each of killing the other, the reporter had better take care. She is probably venting an old-time grudge against her neighbors, whose son last month broke a window-pane in her house. Countless libel suits might have been avoided had the reporters been able to detect falsehood more readily.

    Questioning Everyone. He should see not only Mr. Davidson, if possible, but other witnesses of the shooting, acquaintances in the neighborhood, the servants in the house, and anyone else, no matter how humble, likely in any way to be connected with or to have knowledge of the occurrence. Oftentimes a janitor, a maid, or a chauffeur will divulge facts that the mistress or the detective bureau would not disclose for large sums of money.

    Frequently a child in the yard or on the back steps will give invaluable information. This is particularly true when the older persons are attempting to conceal facts or are too much excited from a death or an accident to talk. Children usually are less unstrung by distressing events and can give a more connected account. Moreover, they are almost always willing to talk, and they generally try to tell the truth. A Person's Previous Record. If the woman is a divorcee or the man an ex-convict, or if one of the children previously has been arraigned in police court for delinquency, or if any one of the participants has ever been drawn into public notice, such items will be worth much in identifying the characters in the story.

    If the man whose house is burning lost another house, well insured, a year ago; if the widow [Pg 53 ] has married secretly her chauffeur two months after her husband's sudden death from ptomaine poisoning; if the man who spoke last night was the preacher who declared all protestant churches will some day return to the confessional;—if such facts can be obtained, they will add greatly to the interest and the value of the story, and the reporter should make every effort to obtain them.

    Their interest lies, of course, either in the fact that they aid the public in identifying the persons, or that they provide material for interesting conjectures as to probable results. Sometimes, indeed, this correlation of present and past facts grows so important that it becomes the main story. Full Details. It is far easier to throw away unneeded material when writing up the events than to return to the scene for neglected information. In particular, one should learn the name and address of every person in any way connected with the story, no matter how much trouble it may require to get the information.

    A man who is merely incidental at the beginning of the inquiry may prove of prime importance an hour later or in the follow-up next day. Even the telephone number of persons likely in any way to become prominent—or where such persons may be reached by telephone—should be obtained. For, try as one will to get all the facts, one often needs to get additional information after returning to the office.

    In such a plight, it is of great value to know where a man may be reached who does not have a telephone in his own home. Pictures, too, of the persons concerned are valuable. The news-reading public likes illustrations, and whether the photograph is or is not used, it is easily returnable by next day's mail. All papers promise to return photographs unharmed. Getting Names Correctly. Numerous libel suits have been started because a reporter got an initial or a street address wrong and there happened to be in the city another person with the printed name and street address.

    Even if the story does not contain cause for libel, a person whose name has been misspelled never quite forgives a journal for getting it wrong. The reporter should remember that many of the Smiths in the world are Smythes in print and many of the Catherines spell it Katharyne in the city directory. And such persons are sensitive.

    A large per cent of the impassioned and seemingly spontaneous bursts of oratory that one hears on church, lecture, and political platforms are but verbal reproductions of typewritten manuscript in the speaker's inside coat pocket, and if the newspaper man will ask for carbon copies of the oratory, the lecturer will be glad to provide them in advance,—in order to have himself quoted correctly. He will also be glad to provide the photograph. These advance copies of speeches are called "release" stories.

    That is, they are marked at the top of the first page, "Release, June 12, p. Newspapers always regard scrupulously a release date, and a reporter need never hesitate to give his word that publication of speeches, messages, and reports will be withheld until after delivery. An editor of a paper in the Middle West once thought to scoop the world by printing the President's message to Congress the evening before its delivery, but he was so promptly barred from the telegraphic wires thereafter that he paid dearly for his violation of professional honor.

    With these [Pg 55 ] advance copies of speeches in his possession the reporter may write at his own convenience his account of the lecture; or if he is rushed—and has the permission of the city editor—he may even stay away from the meeting. On the other hand, if the speaker is of national importance, it may be well to consult with the city editor about going out fifty miles or more to catch the train on which the distinguished guest is coming. In this way one can have an interview ready for publication by the time the great man arrives and sometimes can obtain a valuable scoop on rival papers.

    Attending Lectures. Where one is not able to get a typewritten copy of a speech, the only alternative is to attend the lecture. Newspaper men usually are provided with free tickets, which they should obtain in advance, as the rush of the lecture hour throws unexpected duties on those responsible for the program, and one may sometimes be considerably inconvenienced in getting an admission card.

    Inside there is generally a table close to the platform, where newspaper men may write comfortably. If the reporter has been given an advance copy of the speech, he should listen closely for any variations from the typewritten manuscript, as speakers in the excitement resulting from the applause or disapproval of the audience often lose their heads and make indiscreet statements or disclose state secrets that furnish the best story material for the paper next morning. If one does not have an advance copy, one should attempt to get the speech by topics, with occasional verbatim passages of particularly pithy or dynamic passages.

    As in the case of interviews, it is better not to attempt to take too much of the lecture word for word.

    The significance, the spirit of the address is of greater worth than mere literalness. If the city editor wants a verbatim report, he will send a stenographer. A Newspaper Man's Honor. He must go after a story with the determination to get it and to get it honorably. Once he has started after an item, he must not give up until he has succeeded. But he must succeed with honor. Stories are rampant over the United States of newspaper men stealing through basement windows at night, listening at keyholes, bribing jurymen to break their oath, and otherwise transgressing the limits of law and honor.

    But the day of such reportorial methods has passed. To-day a newspaper expects every man on its staff to be a gentleman. It wants no lawbreakers or sneaks. Stories must be obtained honestly and written up honestly. The man who fakes a story or willfully distorts facts for the sake of injuring a man or making a good news article will be discharged from any reputable newspaper in America. And he ought to be. On the Way to the Office. On the way back to the office the reporter must employ his time as profitably as when getting the news, so that when he enters the city room he may have his facts arranged for developing into story form and may be able to hang his article on the city editor's hook in the briefest time possible.

    Some journalists even put speed first, and Mr. Thomas Herbert Warren but voiced the opinion of many of the fraternity when he wrote,. When the reporter starts back to the office, he has in his pocket a mass of jumbled facts, most of which have a bearing on the prospective story, but many of which have not. Even those facts that are relevant are scattered confusedly among the different sheets, so that in order to write his story he must first rearrange his notes entirely. He may regroup these mentally while writing, by jumping with his eye up and down the pages, hunting on the backs of some sheets, and twisting his head sideways to get notes written crosswise on others.

    But all this takes valuable time,—so much, indeed, that the wise reporter will have on hand, either in his mind or on paper, a definite plan for his story. To paraphrase Herbert Spencer's words on reading: A reporter has at each moment but a limited amount of mental power available.

    To recognize and interpret the facts recorded in his notes requires part of his power; to strike in ordered sequence the typewriter keys that will put those facts on paper requires an additional part; and only that part which remains can be used for putting his ideas into forceful, accurate sentences. Hence, the more time and attention it takes to read and understand one's notes, the less time and attention can be given to expressing the ideas, and the less vividly will those ideas be presented.

    Moreover, when a writer attempts to compose from jumbled notes, because of his attention being riveted on expressing clearly and forcefully what he has jotted down, he is liable to include in his story facts that do not properly belong there, or to omit some illegibly written but important item, and so fail to present the incidents fairly and accurately.

    The same story almost always can be presented in several different ways. This point of the story, this angle from which the reporter writes, is determined largely by the writer's selection of details, which in turn is dominated by the policy of the paper and the interest of the readers. If the paper and its patrons care particularly for humorous stories, certain dolorous facts are omitted or placed in unimportant positions, and the readers have a fair but amusing view of the occurrence.

    If they favor sob stories, the same incident, by a different selection or arrangement of details, may be made pathetic. But the reporter must select his details with such a purpose in mind. And unless he has some such [Pg 59 ] definite motive and has so organized his material before beginning to write, he will present a more or less prosaic narrative of events with little specific appeal to the reader.

    Of course, one oftentimes is too rushed to take so much care in preparation for writing. Frequently, indeed, a reporter cannot wait until he can get back to the office, but must telephone the facts in to a rewrite man, who will put them into story form. But it is fair to say that the discerning reporter never idles away his time in the smoking compartment of the car when returning with a story. His mind is, and should be, engrossed with the story, which he should strive to make so good that it will appear on the front page of the paper.

    Four Orders of Organization. Of these, probably ninety-five per cent of all the news stories published are organized on the time order or a combination of it with one or more of the other three. Of the remaining three, probably four per cent of the stories are written in the climactic order, leaving only about one per cent for the space and complex orders. Numerous articles, of course, are a combination of two or more of these orders. Time Order. Fearing the wrath of his father, Kenneth Cavert, 5-year-old son of Mr.

    George Cavert, Rankin and Franklin streets, suffered in silence while fire in his bed Friday evening painfully burned two of his toes and caused severe burns on his body. The lad went to bed shortly after dark Friday evening. About a half-hour later he went downstairs [Pg 60 ] for a drink. A few minutes later he went down again for a drink. Shortly afterward Mr. Cavert smelled cloth burning in the house, and going upstairs to investigate, found the boy in bed, wide awake, the blankets in flames, which surrounded the lad and had already seared his toes.

    One of the bed rails was burned almost in two and the bed clothing ruined. The lad afterward said he went downstairs to get a mouthful of water to spit on the flames. Although he will not tell how the fire started, it is supposed he was playing with matches. Space Order. The following story of the Eastland disaster in illustrates the space order:. A line of showcases extends down the center of the public hearing room on the first floor of the city hall.

    Arranged for display are a hundred or more cameras of all sizes, thermos bottles, purses, hand bags, and even a snare drum. Around the room are racks on which are hanging cloaks and coats, here a red sweater, there a white corduroy cloak. Under them are heaps of hats, mostly men's straw, obviously of this year's make. There are several hundred women's headgear, decorated with feathers and ribbons. Along one side are piled suit cases and satchels, open for inspection.

    They are packed for departure with toothbrushes and toothpaste, packages of gum, tobacco and books. A dozen baseball bats are leaning against one of the pillars near the end of the showcase. There are several uniforms to be worn by bandmen. De Witt C. Cregier, city collector, stood behind one of the showcases yesterday afternoon, with a jeweler's glass, examining bits of ornament. Piled before him in long rows were envelops. One by one, he or his assistants dumped the contents on the glass case and read off descriptions of each article to a stenographer:.

    As the articles were listed they were put back into the envelops. Had it not been for one circumstance, it might have been a pawnshop inventory. But under the long rows of coats, hats, and shoes, there was a pool of water. It dripped from the red sweater onto a straw hat beneath. It fell into shoes and the place smelled of wet leather. When the bodies of those who perished in the Eastland disaster were removed from the water, their clothing and jewelry were taken by the police and tabulated.

    There was no space in the custodian's office; so he hastily fitted up the public hearing-room, brought in showcases and had carpenters build racks for the clothing Climactic Order. The following story, though brief, illustrates well the climactic order of arrangement: [Pg 62 ]. First, there was the young man. One night, while they were on the way to a movie, Ambrosia noticed the young man was looking rather critically at her dress. When one is 17 and lives in a big city where there are any number of girls just as good looking, besides a lot who are better looking, it is a serious matter when a young man begins to look critically at one's dress.

    Particularly is it serious when the acquisition of a new dress is a matter of much painstaking planning; of dispensing with this or that at luncheon; of walking to work every day instead of only when the weather is fine; and of other painful sacrifices. Ambrosia didn't say anything. She pretended she hadn't noticed the young man's look. But that night, in her room on East Thirteenth Street, Ambrosia indulged in some higher mathematics. It might as well be vouchsafed here that the address on East Thirteenth Street is , and that Ambrosia's name is Dallard, and that she is an operator for the Bell Telephone Company.

    The net result of her calculations was that, no matter how hard she saved, she wouldn't be able to buy a new dress until December or January. Meanwhile,—but Ambrosia knew there couldn't be any meanwhile. She had to have that dress. Ambrosia found a card, and on it was the name of a firm which ardently assured her it wanted to afford her credit. Then there was a little something about a dollar down and a dollar a week until paid for. So Ambrosia got her dress. Ambrosia wore it to a movie and the young man admiringly informed her she "was all dolled up.

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    One night, when Ambrosia was wearing the new possession for the third time, it developed a long rip. The cloth was defective. Ambrosia took the dress back. The installment [Pg 63 ] firm was sorry, but could do nothing, and of course the firm expected her to keep paying for it. Ambrosia left the dress, and went back to her old one.

    The young man noticed it the next time they went out together. Shortly afterward, when he should have called, he didn't. A collector for the installment house did, though. Meanwhile, Ambrosia was saving to buy another dress. She was quite emphatic about the bill from the installment house—she wouldn't pay it. Once in awhile she saw the young man, but she didn't care for more calls until the new dress was forthcoming.

    Tuesday it looked as if everything would come out all right. It was much better looking than the old dress and better material. She even made an anticipatory engagement with the young man. Wednesday came—Ambrosia went to draw her salary. The installment house had garnisheed it. To-day Ambrosia's job is being kept open by the telephone company, and it is thought some arrangement may be made by which the installment house will not garnishee her salary next week.

    At the General Hospital she is reported as resting well. She was taken there in an ambulance yesterday afternoon after trying to kill herself by inhaling chloroform. Complex Order. Generally a story following this method of organization is nothing else than simple exposition. The following Associated Press story illustrates the type: [Pg 64 ]. Washington, July Fiske, now attached to the navy war college, but formerly aid for operations to Secretary Daniels. The plan contemplates equipping a monster aeroplane, similar to a number now under construction in this country for the British government, with a Whitehead torpedo of regulation navy type.

    Swooping down at a distance of five sea miles from the object of attack, the air craft would drop its deadly passenger into the water just as it would have been launched from a destroyer. The impact sets the torpedo's machinery in motion and it is off at a speed of more than forty knots an hour toward the enemy ship.

    Admiral Fiske believes the flying torpedo boat would make it possible to attack a fleet even within a landlocked harbor. The range of the newest navy torpedoes is ten thousand yards and even the older types will be effective at seven thousand yards. Carried on a huge aeroplane, the 2, pound weapon would be taken over harbor defenses at an altitude safe from gunfire.

    Once over the bay, the machine would glide down to within ten or twenty feet of water, the torpedo rudders would be set and it would be dropped to do its work while the aeroplane arose and sped away. Climactic Order Difficult. This method of arrangement is on the short-story order, and the beginner will find it difficult to group his incidents so that each shall lead up to and explain those following and at the same time add to the reader's interest. Some papers as yet admit only rarely the story developed climactically, but it [Pg 65 ] is growing in popularity and the reporter should know how to handle it.

    Important Details. But he must keep in mind one other factor,—to place the most important details first and the least important last. There are two reasons why this method of arrangement is necessary. In the first place, readers want all the main details first, so that they may learn immediately whether or not they are interested in the story and if it will be worth their while to read the whole article. They are too busy to read everything in the paper; they can choose only those stories that excite their interest. If, therefore, they can learn in the first paragraph what the whole story is about, they will not be delayed and fatigued unnecessarily by reading non-essentials with the hope of finding something worth while.

    Unimportant Details. At the beginning of the day news is relatively scarce, and the front-page, left-hand column of the first edition may carry a story that will be cut in half in the city edition and be relegated to an inside page. More important news has come in as the day has aged. A reporter, therefore, must plan his stories with a view to having the last part, if necessary, cut off,—so that, indeed, if the news editor should prune the story down to only the first paragraph, the reader would still be given the gist of what has happened.

    Note the following story, how it may be cut off at any paragraph and still present a perfect, though less imposing whole: [Pg 66 ]. Villisca, Ia. Bates is still in school, and became acquainted with the widow when he went to her home to call on one of her daughters. According to the petition, young Bates made such a hit with the mother of his best girl that she herself fell in love with him, and was soon a rival of her own daughter. The older woman knew many tricks with which the daughter was unacquainted, and in the end she managed to "bag" the game.

    The marriage, which took place in Chicago, was kept a secret even after the couple returned home, and it was not until young Bates told the whole story to his mamma a few days ago that his family had an inkling of the true state of affairs. Now the suit has been filed by the boy's mother, because the young husband himself is too young to go into court without a guardian.

    As one of the causes of the suit, the petition cites that Bates was inveigled into the marriage through "the wiles, artifices, and protestations of love" on the part of the widow. Furthermore, the petition charges that the two were married under assumed names, that their ages were falsely given, and that their residences, as given the marriage clerk, were false. According to the petition, young Bates was attending school, where he met Mrs. Patrick's daughter and fell in love with her. He called at the house and met the mother, who was divorced from her first husband some ten years ago.

    There were four of the Patrick children, their ages being 13, 15, 17, and 20 years. Bates himself was just 15 at that time. The petition sets up that almost immediately after becoming acquainted with Mrs. Patrick the latter began her attempts to induce young Bates to marry her. Accuracy of Presentation. When the reporter is arranging his material preparatory to writing, casting away a note here and jotting down another there, he can easily warp the whole narrative by an unfair arrangement of details or a prejudiced point of view.

    Frequently a story may be woefully distorted by the mere suppression of a single fact. A newspaper man has no right willfully to keep back information or to distort news. Unbiased stories, or stories as nearly unbiased as possible, are what newspapers want. And while one may legitimately order one's topics to produce a particular effect of humor, pathos, joy, or sorrow, one should never allow the desire for an effect to distort the presentation of the facts.

    Instructions from the City Editor. The city editor may not offer any advice at all, may simply say to write the story for what it is worth. In such a case, the reporter is at liberty to go ahead as he has planned; and he should have his copy on the city editor's desk within a very few minutes. The city editor, however, may tell him to feature a certain incident and to write it up humorously. If the reporter has observed keenly, he himself will already have chosen the same incident and may still proceed with the writing as he planned on the way back to the office. A careful study of instructions given reporters will quickly convince one, however, that in nine cases out of ten the city editor takes his cue from the reporter himself, that in the reporter's very mood and method of recounting what he has learned, he suggests to the city editor the features and the tone of the story, and is merely given back his own opinion verified.

    Not always is this the case, however. One reporter on a Southern daily—and a star man, too—used to say that he could never predict what his city editor would want featured. So he used always to come into the office armed with two leads, and sometimes with three. Two Kinds of Leads. The lead is easily the more important. If a reporter can handle successfully this part of the story, he will have little trouble in writing the whole. The lead is the first sentence or the first group of sentences in the story and is of two kinds, the summarizing lead and what may be called the informal lead.

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    The summarizing lead gives in interesting, concise language the gist of the story. The informal lead merely introduces the reader to the story without intimating anything of the outcome, but with a suggestion that something interesting is coming. Of the two types the summarizing lead is by far the more common and may be considered first. Summarizing Lead. A brief story usually has a short lead. A long, involved story made up of several parts, each under a separate head, often has a lead consisting of several paragraphs. Sometimes this lead, because of its importance as a summary of all the details in the story, is even boxed and printed in black-face type at the beginning of the story.

    Then follow the different parts, each division with its own individual lead. Contents of the Lead. Whatever that feature is, it should be played up in the lead. The first and great commandment in news writing is that the story begin with the most important fact and give all the essential details first. These details are generally summarized in the questions who , what , when , where , why , and how. If the writer sees that his lead answers these questions, he may be positive that, so far as context is concerned, his lead will be good. Construction of the Lead.

    For this reason, newspaper men avoid beginning a story with to-day , to-morrow , or yesterday , because the time at which an incident has occurred is rarely the most important fact. For the same reason, careful writers avoid starting with the , an , or a , though it often is necessary to begin with these articles because the noun they modify is itself important. The name of the place, too, rarely ever is of enough importance to be put first.

    An examination of a large number of leads in the best newspapers shows that the features most often played up are the result and the cause or motive. As a result of too much thanksgiving on Thanksgiving Day, Prof. Harry Z. Just plain ordinary geese and a few ganders held up a train on the Milwaukee road to-day and forced their owner, Nepomcyk Kucharski, Fourth Avenue, into district court. Because Harry A. Harries, 24, North Avenue, wanted two dollars for a license to marry Anna Francis, 17, Peachtree Avenue, his aged mother is dying this morning in St.

    Elizabeth Hospital. That immediate intervention in Mexico by the United States will be the result of the Villa raid last night on Columbus, N. Another feature often played up in leads is the means or method by which a result was attained. A sensational half-mashie shot to the lip of the cup on the eighteenth green won to-day for Mrs. Roland H. Working at night with a tin spoon and a wire nail, Capt. Wilhelm Schuettler dug feet to liberty and escaped from the Hallamshire camp sometime early this morning.

    Cardinal Giacomo della Chiesa, archbishop of Bologna, Italy, was to-day elected supreme pontiff of the Catholic hierarchy, in succession to the late Pope Pius X, who died Aug. He will reign under the name of Benedict XV. President Wilson and Mrs. Norman Galt have selected Saturday, Dec. The ceremony will be performed in Mrs. Galt's residence, and the guests will be confined to the immediate members of the President's and Mrs. Galt's families. New Orleans will be the place of the annual meeting of the Southern Congress of Education and Industry, it was learned from a member of the Executive committee to-day.

    Chicago was selected by the Republican National committee to-night as the meeting place of the Republican national convention, to be held June 7, one week before the Democratic convention in St. Monday, Sept. Form of the Lead. Some of the commonest types of beginnings are with: 1 a simple statement; 2 a series of simple statements; 3 a conditional clause; 4 a substantive clause; 5 an infinitive phrase; 6 a participial phrase; 7 a prepositional phrase; 8 the absolute construction. Leads with Short Sentences. Often reporters break what might be a long, one-sentence, summarizing lead into a very short sentence followed by a long one, or into a number of brief sentences, each of which gives one important detail.

    Such a type of lead gains its force from the fact that it lends emphasis to the individual details given in the short sentences. Note the effect of the following leads:. The epidemic of fever that has been sweeping through the western suburb since the high school banquet more than a month ago was traced yesterday to a woman carrier who handled the food in the school restaurant.

    George Edward Waddell, our famous "Rube," fanned out to-day. It was not the first time Rube had fanned, but it will be his last. Tuberculosis claimed him after a two-year fight. If Mrs. Mary McCormick sneezes or coughs, she will die. Her back was broken yesterday by a fall from a third-story window. Lead Beginning with a Conditional Clause —The lead beginning with a conditional clause is valuable for humorous effects or for summarizing facts leading up to a story. As a rule, however, one must avoid using more than two such clauses, as they are liable to make the sentence heavy or obscure.

    But he wrote Dorothy she was a little love. If Joe Kasamowitz, Queen's Avenue, speaks to his wife either at her home or at the news-stand she conducts at the St. Paul Hotel; if he loiters near the entrance to the hotel; or if he even attempts to call his wife over the telephone before Saturday, he will be in contempt of court, according to an injunction issued to-day by Judge Fish.

    Lead Beginning with a Substantive Clause. That Jim Jeffries was the greatest fighter in the history of pugilism and Jim Corbett the best boxer, was the statement last night by Bob Fitzsimmons before a crowd of 5, at the Orpheum theater. That he had refused to kiss her on her return from a long visit and had said he was tired of being married, was the testimony of Mrs. Flora Eastman to-day in her divorce suit against Edwin O. Eastman, of St. Lead Beginning with a Phrase. But the writer must be careful, particularly in participial constructions, to see that the phrases have definite words to modify.

    To see if the bullet was coming was the reason Charlie Roberts, aged 7, Ninth Street, looked down his father's pistol barrel at a. With her hands and feet tied, Ida Elionsky, 16, swam in the roughest kind of water through Hell Gate yesterday, landing safely at Blackwell's Island. Lead Beginning with Absolute Construction.

    The following illustrates the construction well:. Her money gone and her baby starving, Mrs. Kate Allen, 8 Marvin Alley, begged fifteen cents of a stranger yesterday to poison herself and child. Accuracy and Interest in the Lead.