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Acte confronts Nero, begging to return to him and for him to spare the Christians. Nero refuses and sends her away, calling her a traitor. Then, when Galba usurps him, Nero barely escapes a traitorous Tigellinus, as well as a mob of Romans who throw rubbish at him. He goes to a river, tosses his diadem in, and slits his wrists.

As he dies, Acte finds him, and he asks for her forgiveness, which she grants. The works which give the best account of Nero do not shy away from his faults, of course. His methodology has its basis on cause-and-effect, how each bad action is the result a prior event. Cary, He takes great pleasure in recounting the vices of the emperors ranging from Julius Caesar to Domitian. He attempts to sway the reader one way or the other, giving both the good and the bad.

His account, however, is not balanced by any means. Rolfe, Suetonius presents such stories not as historical facts, but as gossip that he makes use of to evaluate Nero. While he recounts military campaigns in Britannia and Armenia, Tacitus also spends time discussing accusations made in the Senate and the outcome of their trials. Tacitus is slightly less biased and opinionated than Suetonius; he will include rather damning stories of Nero and his mother, Agrippina, but attributes it to other writers.

The story is surely revealing about Agrippina and Nero, yet because Tacitus cites it from the work of another, he does not appear to be a spreader of rumors as Suetonius does. Tacitus does not dwell on negative stories as much, only using such for historical purposes. When he acquired his power, it gave Nero the access he needed to make his fantasies a reality. Tacitus, however, blames Agrippina more sternly than the other texts. Nero becomes more responsible for his crimes, however, when his mother, Seneca and Burrus lose influence over his behavior.

As Nero becomes more comfortable as a ruler, however, he relies less on his mother, and soon turns on her thereafter. The film, however, heavily deviates from the ancient source material. Domitius did not seem to love his son either, saying that he and Agrippina were too evil to give birth to a noble child 6. He had died of dropsy, furthermore, instead of being murdered by Caligula, when Nero was three 6.

Much attention is also given as to how the family is depicted as close-knitted. After being declared an enemy by the Senate, Nero committed suicide in the home of one of his freemen; when he failed die, his freedman helped finish the job Suetonius, The timing of events is altered to make Nero more pitiable, once an innocent boy who witnessed the brutal murder of his father, who later fell into darkness. While Acte is seldom mentioned in the ancient sources, it is known that Nero did have a strong infatuation with her Dio, The emperor was accustomed to having more than one bedfellow as once, including Sporus, who he utilized for his own personal fantasies Dio, A film that has its basis in spreading Christian teachings, therefore, ought to avoid such sacrilegious topics.

Nero is striking in its portrayal of the emperor, as it breaks from all older conventions. Famous movies such as Quo Vadis? A film also worthy of note is the comedy History of the World, Part I , where Nero is described as a piggish glutton interested in dining and bathing in treasure Cyrino, , p. Nero , however, humanizes him to an extent that other films do not. Nero first comes across as a misunderstood musician, who has the simple interests of running away to Greece with Acte Dahm, , p. He has no interest in taking power at first and is forced onto the throne instead.

He later succumbs to corruption, however, losing the innocence he was previously presented with having. This depiction heavily contrasts with that of Tigellinus. His purpose, as exhibited throughout the film, is to murder on the orders of the emperor. His loyalty too is questionable, as he clearly has his own self-interests. While he is loyal to the emperor he serves, his loyalty only lasts until his own interests no longer ally with the interests of the emperor.

He is complicit in the deaths of Caligula, Claudius, and eventually attempts to kill Nero himself, and in this way embodies the evilest nature of the empire. Agrippina, at first, is a simple loving mother, yet she ends up manipulating others into get her son to rule. Security, however, becomes skewed with the vision she receives while in exile. She first spies on and has Messalina killed for her infidelity, subsequently marrying Claudius; then, while Claudius is in Britain, she mints money of her own likeness; later, she instructs Seneca to shape her son Nero into the model emperor; and when Claudius changes his will to have Britannicus succeed him, she has him poisoned.

Everything she does in this case is solely to get Nero onto the throne, yet her actions are immoral. The film attempts to portray Agrippina as having been corrupted through her good intentions. By wanting security, each action serves as a slippery slope to the next. Even when Nero is atop the throne, she continues to scheme. At first, Nero is against the bloodthirsty nature of Rome.

The line speaks for the nature of the Senators, therefore; by opposing what many audience members would view positively, the Senate becomes synonymous with selfish elites that care nothing for other people. It may also serve to comment on the ancient sources and explain their inherent bias against Nero. When the Senate votes almost unanimously against him, Nero oversteps then and institutes these changes anyways. The child that was Lucius now grows thin, while the bureaucratic Nero grows stronger.

He is increasingly pressured by others, however, to do immoral deeds. His taking of the throne is with good intentions, as he hopes to make a better world by ruling. His dream fails to become a reality, however, when he realizes that people plot against him. He is seduced by the titillating seductress Poppea, who introduces him to powerful narcotics and unrestrained debauchery It flashes back and forth with the jovial wedding procession to the brutal murders of Septimus and Porridus. The contrast seems to indicate that Nero takes delight in the thought of death, best summarized by how he sadistically smiles when he tells Seneca to commit suicide Nero, who had previously proclaimed to never shed blood for his namesake, has stooped to a point where he will kill as he pleases.

After departing from Nero, Acte too undergoes a character change, only this time her demeanor improves. Here, Acte is unable to forgive Nero for his misdeeds. Having learned to accept the Christian ethic, Acte, dressed in humble rags just as she was with Nero when she was a working slave, approaches an ornately dressed Nero and asks to return to his life and that he spare the Christians. Nero and Agrippina both find themselves in a pagan Rome that idolizes greed, bloodshed, and disloyalty. Yet Acte, who goes to Christianity, finds herself improved instead of corrupted.

The film does not execute this moral well, however. Such scenes took away from the overall effectiveness of the film. Emotional scenes such as these were poorly executed in the film. With a run-time of nearly three hours, Nero is far too long; the length is avoidable, however, as certain scenes are purposelessly elongated.

The scene is hallmarked by somber violin music while one or two characters shed tears. At least a dozen similar scenes occur in different parts of the film, and while the purpose is to obviously coax an emotional response from the audience, the repetition of the trope ultimately lessens its effectiveness.

The overdramatization of a challenging film idea proved incredibly obnoxious. Blanshard, A. Classics on Screen: ancient Greece and Rome on film. Bristol Classical Press. Crew United. Accessed March 30, Dio, Cassius; C. Heinemann, Gotan girl. IMDb, September 11, Pauly, A. Cancik, H. Landfester Eds. Salazar Trans. Retrieved April 12, Rave, C. Matheson, Trans. Deutsche Presse-Agentur. Rodriguez, M. Television- Life and Leisure. Suetonius; Bradley, K. Lives of the Caesars. Retrieved from Loeb Classical Library. Tacitus; C. Oxford: OUP Oxford. Winkler, M.

Classical Literature on Screen: Affinities of Imagination. Cambridge University Press. The film opens with Julius Caesar, played by the esteemed Rex Harrison, looking down upon the lifeless bodies of soldiers after the bloody Battle of Pharsalus. This battle had been an excellent victory as Caesar had just defeated Pompey the Great. As Caesar reaches the port of Alexandria the audience is given a birds eye view of the majestic blue of the ocean and the busy markets down below. As Caesar arrives, young Ptolemy his waiting for him along with his advisors hoping that Caesar and his men will make fools of themselves by being brutal towards the Egyptians within the marketplace.

The Egyptian Court consists of Theodotus, his tutor, and Achillas, the head of his armies. The members of the court glisten in gold clothing, exuding wealth. Pothinus clarifies the situation by stating that though Cleopatra had tried to kill Ptolemy she was not dead and had fled the city. Caesar responds that he has come to Egypt to resolve the civil war that has been created due to animosity between the siblings, as Rome was named their guardian after their father had died. Caesar is visibly disturbed but hides it as he knows the Egyptian court is watching.

Caesar states he will stay in the palace and asks Rufio to give Pompey proper burial rites. As Apollodorus gently puts down the carpet on the floor out rolls Cleopatra.

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Cleopatra, played by the beautiful Elizabeth Taylor, immediately discusses with Caesar of how he must make her sole ruler. Cleopatra acknowledges with severity in her voice that she knows that Caesar was disturbed by the decapitation of Pompey. Cleopatra leaves with more knowledge of the infamous Caesar. Cleopatra later asks her tutor, Sosigenes, about the seizures and what the illness entails.

Cleopatra begins to have romantic feelings for the esteemed leader and knowing he is coming to see her, ensures he sees her bathing completely naked with only a thin blanket covering her. Unfortunately, the fire spreads to nearby buildings including the historical Library of Alexandria. Cleopatra, a known intellect, is furious by this and confronts Caesar. They begin a ferocious battle with words, with Cleopatra calling Caesar a barbarian, and Caesar silencing her with a passionate kiss. Caesar leaves and defeats the Egyptians fleet. The next day, Cleopatra is almost poisoned by a servant and in retaliation, forces the servant to drink the poison.

Later, Caesar hosts a trial and Pothinus is sentenced to death and Ptolemy and Theodotus are sent to join the army, a path that will most likely end in death. After this, Cleopatra tries to speak to Caesar but he is visibly ill and asks her to leave. Cleopatra, having spied on him before knows he is about to have a seizure. She saves him and they share a moment of intimacy with Caesar expressing his fears and Cleopatra comforting him.

Later, Cleopatra is crowned sole ruler of Egypt and even Caesar bows before her which brings discomfort to his fellow Romans. Cleopatra then shows Caesar Egypt and all its glories.

In the next scene, Cleopatra discusses with Caesar her desire for them to work together in order to fulfill the goals of Alexander the Great. After this, they are seen in bed where Cleopatra talks of how she is a real woman who can give Caesar a son, unlike his current wife who is barren, and they make love. When Caesar learns that Cleopatra is pregnant he is overjoyed; this contrasts the response of the Roman Senate who are weary when hearing that Cleopatra and Caesar are having a child and have married. Caesar does just this and the Romans see the vision Caesar has for the future of Rome through his son Caesarion.

After this, we see the Roman senate discussing the birth of the child with Brutus announcing he is happy for Caesar and Octavian, played by Roddy McDowall, purposefully keeping his thoughts quiet. Cleopatra arrives in Rome with a show of dancers, gold, and soldiers in front of her. She and her son Caesarion are on a throne atop a massive sphinx emulating wealth and royalty. Cleopatra is seen wearing gold from her headpiece to her shoes, showing Rome just how powerful she is. The crowds welcome this wealth with screams and shouts of appreciation. Caesar comments on the stature of his son while Marc Antony has his eyes glued to the beautiful queen.

The Roman Senate begrudgingly rise for her arrival and Cleopatra and her son bow before Caesar. As Cleopatra resides in Rome, Caesar spends time with his son and also hopes to be made emperor. The senate disapproves of this, begins to see Caesar as a radical tyrant, and comes to the conclusion that they must kill him. As Caesar is notified they have made a decision on his title he leaves Cleopatra who is left with the notion she might never see him again.

Caesar arrives at the meeting and is brutally stabbed. After this, Cleopatra and Caesarion escape Rome with the help of Marc Antony who states that this will not be the last time they will see each other. In the second part of the film Marc Antony is seen leading a successful war against those who killed Julius Caesar.

Antony comes to Octavian and they decide to divide conquered lands amongst prominent Roman leaders. This agreement leads to Octavian having control of Italy and Antony control of the East. Atony then comes up with a plan to move against Parthia; unfortunately, Rufio reminds him they are running low on supplies and money. Rufio hints at Antony at who could be the solution to their problem: Cleopatra. Antony is angered by this but begrudgingly agrees to meet her, so he has Rufio summon her.

Yet, Cleopatra states she will only meet him on Egyptian soil. Later, Antony meets her on the most decadent of ships and they discuss finances while it is extremely obvious Antony yearns for Cleopatra romantically. This makes Atony extremely jealous, however through a passionate conversation they later have sex. As these two lovers fall more deeply in love, Octavian has taken up the legacy of Caesar and is threatening companions of Antony. Therefore, Antony is forced to leave Egypt and Cleopatra and return to Rome.

In order to divide Cleopatra and Antony, Octavian offers his sister as wife to Antony. Later, Antony arrives in Egypt and is forced to kneel before her in public. Cleopatra demands that with a new treaty Rome must give Egypt a third of their conquered lands. After this, they speak privately and Cleopatra demands that Antony marry her and abandon his wife.

To the Roman senate this is a clear rejection of his Roman roots and with Octavian as their leader they go to war. Unfortunately, he is trapped between enemy ships and due to the fire that blazes the ships Cleopatra is told he is dead. After Cleopatra abandons Antony nothing is quite the same between them as Antony harbors animosity towards Cleopatra for forcing him to abandon his men. Octavian sends a delegation to Egypt asking Cleopatra to send the head of Marc Antony in return for peace between Rome and Egypt.

Yet, Cleopatra states she will not give Marc Antony over to Octavian. Marc Antony overhears this, yet, still states that he is dead inside to which Cleopatra slaps him repeatedly across the face. Marc Antony enraged slaps her back with such force she falls to the ground. Cleopatra is able to reach him when she states how much she loves him. The next scene, is Antony and Rufio getting ready for battle. We see Octavian tell his advisor that he will take Antony and Cleopatra alive. Sadly, he believes that Cleopatra has abandoned him again and he falls on his sword believing he has no other choice.

Antony is taken to where Cleopatra is hiding and dies in the arms of the love of his life. Octavian is made aware that Antony is dead and is ecstatic. He then searches for Cleopatra, curious to see this enigma of a woman, and tells her she can rule Egypt as a province of Rome as long as she accompanies him to Rome first. She sees Octavian wearing the ring of Pompey and immediately knows her son Caesarion is dead. She makes a series of empty promises to Octavian and later makes the arrangements to kill herself.

Cleopatra has been recreated in many forms through a list of influential films in the last few decades. In the film Cleopatra Elizabeth Taylor portrays Cleopatra as sexy, strong, and enamored by powerful men. Historically, Cleopatra was many of those things but as she was a queen she was born with great power. Taylor as well does nothing to downplay her stereotypical beauty but instead wears eye makeup that accentuates her eyes and dresses that outline her curves. Historically, as Cleopatra was not particularly beautiful she relied on her skills of persuasion.

She was also a known intellect who was the first member of her family to speak the local language in order to better communicate with her citizens. Kleiner The film is divided into two parts: her relationship with Julius Caesar and later Marc Antony. In the film, this was not shown in order to fully concentrate on her relationship with Caesar. The reason Cleopatra felt the need to ally herself to these powerful men was because she felt her brothers did not have the qualities to assert themselves as rulers.

One of the most prominent moments in the film, was when Caesar declared Cleopatra sole ruler of Egypt. Historically, however, Cleopatra was said to have poisoned her younger brother in order to become sole ruler. This proves that Cleopatra did not need a man to assist her in gaining power within her own country. This is not historically accurate, as Cleopatra did not continually compare the two, yes, they were both prominent Roman men Kleiner ; but, Caesar was older and extremely dedicated to his aspirations, while, Antony was younger, enjoyed partying, and was often compared with the Greek god Dionysus: god of wine.

Without mentioning these three children the film was able to focus more on the dramatic relationship between Antony and Cleopatra. This was a consequence of Cleopatra constantly reminding Antony of Caesarian. By leaving out these three children the film focalized more on Antony and his fear of being overshadowed by Caesar.

Therefore, taking away from the main character: Cleopatra. The beginning of the long convoluted story that is the production of Cleopatra began when Walter Wanger started as a producer in October at Twentieth Century Fox Klawans In the middle of the year , the studio agreed they would save money in building the set in London instead of the Fox lot. Various drafts for the script had been rejected and Wanger asked for a fourth writer. To add to the turmoil, Elizabeth had caught pneumonia and was said to have been near death, therefore, production was forced to leave London and move to Rome Cyrino These constant location changes forced the budget to rise.

Taylor also pleaded with Wanger to hire Joseph Mankiewicz, as director, whom she had worked with in a previous film and who she said had earned her an Oscar nomination KLawans Mankiewicz was an independent filmmaker and took full control of the film—script and all. Franzero as the basis of his script Cyrino As if this production could not have had much worse luck, during the filming of the iconic scene where Cleopatra enters Rome, the animals Mankiewicz had hired proved to be unruly and the weather was treacherous. Therefore, production had to be pushed to the spring.

After the affair had been publicized Burton and Taylor made no effort to hide it as they were often seen in public together. On top of this, it was said that Burton tried to restore his marriage; unfortunately, this hit Taylor very hard and she was admitted into a hospital. This only led the fire to grow and in June of Wanger was fired and Fox president Spyros Skouras resigned.

Fortunately, this was great publicity for the film as the public wanted to see the real-life couple on screen. The reception of the film was mixed for many applauded the acting of Rex Harrison who many felt did justice to the revered Julius Caesar. Taylor herself noticed this and asked if she could redub some scenes but because of the already costly film the studio declined.

In the end, the film Cleopatra, many would say, was not worth the cost or the trouble. Twentieth Century Fox sued Taylor and Burton for all the trouble they had caused through publicity Klawans Due to the length of the film and the terrible editing most critics ripped it apart leading to it suffering at the box office Solomon Therefore, all the capital the studio spent did not go to waste. The film Cleopatra has a list of extremely complex characters, therefore, there are a variety of themes within it.

With this blend of the secular and the sacred he was able to engage the Enlightened Russian public on its terms, while maintaining the primacy of faith and the pursuit of salvation that were fundamental to Orthodox teachings. The primer at the cultural crossroads: an early stage in the history of school books in Karelia late 19th-early 20th centuries more. We demonstrate how the controversy We demonstrate how the controversy between the Orthodox and the Lutheran Church in the border region influenced the choice of the character set for the Karelian language alphabet.

The core of the paper is a comparative analysis of the content of two primers for schools in Karelia, one of which was published in Finland and the other one in Russia early in the 20th century. In addition to the thorough analysis of the early stage in the history of schoolbooks in Karelia, later periods have also been outlined. Learning to read and write in Italy in the second half of the nineteenth century. Primers and reading exercise booklets: publications, ministerial control and teaching more.

This paper wants to give an account of the first results of an ongoing investigation that has had as its specific object of study the production and the circulation of primers and reading exercise booklets which belong to one of the less This paper wants to give an account of the first results of an ongoing investigation that has had as its specific object of study the production and the circulation of primers and reading exercise booklets which belong to one of the less analyzed sectors in the production of books for the Italian school system.

The first part examines the lists of primers and reading exercise books published during the first fifteen years of the Italian State. The counting of different database manes, res-educationis , paper and electronic directories and catalogs, was integrated from the archival sources. Firstly from the list collected by the provincial school boards and school inspectors in the course of investigations initiated by the Ministry of Education in and during the period between and ; these lists, which are now preserved in the central State Archives, were sent by the prefects and the supervisors to the Superior Council of the Ministry of Education to assess the suitability of textbooks and their use in classrooms.

Secondly, the paper examines the evolution of editorial production recorded over the next twenty years, drawing on both lists of textbooks collected to be submitted to the Commission chaired by G. Barrili, in the years , and those published by the Commission chaired by Giuseppe Chiarini and Pietro Cavazza between and Finally, the paper discusses some aspetcs of the linguistic content, but above the educational ones transmitted through primers and exercise booklets for supporting the development of civil and ethical dimension and the promotion of national identity in italian primary schools.

Consolidating childhood: children and warpage in Soviet and post-Soviet reading primers more. The article considers textbooks for elementary schools published in the USSR and in post-Soviet Russia between and the late s. We calculate the number of times the Soviet-German war of was mentioned in the texts and We calculate the number of times the Soviet-German war of was mentioned in the texts and visuals of the abecedaria and primers published by central and regional presses.

We arrive at four periods of various emphases on the subject as a part of a ritual of sorts in the patriotic education system, which presumed the need for a positive upbringing for elementary school children through the use of the subject of war and the praise of the Soviet victory. These four periods are , mids, third quarter of the s, second half of the s. We arrive at the conclusion that the idea of war was included in the subculture of Soviet and post-Soviet childhood as constructed by the authorities and the society. Morality for kids in cultural and historical measurements: patterns, translated by primary school textbooks and their transformation in the post-Soviet period more.

The article is aimed at searching for principles of cross-cultural comparison of moral systems. We accept anthropologically oriented approach, and undertake the study of the moral guidelines that the Russian society translates to the We accept anthropologically oriented approach, and undertake the study of the moral guidelines that the Russian society translates to the younger generations. Translators of moral standards in the Soviet period had a generalized nature: a large, stable social community — the Soviet people, the state — are represented in this role in the soviet textbooks.

In the post-Soviet period the situation has changed: the function of moral socialization performed by more personalized subjects — a small group, family. From the second half of 19th to early 20th century, due to the distribution of the renovationist ideology of Jadidism, the life of Russian Muslims underwent profound changes. In the case of Tatars, these changes, among other things, came In the case of Tatars, these changes, among other things, came through the discovery of the childhood culture, reforming Tatar schools and textbooks. The new primers alphabet books based on a more advanced phonetic method of teaching, taught Tatar instead of Arabic or Turki, included secular texts and were often illustrated.

They substituted the former religious primers which utilized the letter-by-letter reading principle. This article follows the process of creation and adoption of new Tatar primers in the educational space of the Kazan governorate and other regions of Russia at the turn of the 20th century. In this paper, we aim to reveal the background, main features and the outcomes of this process. This contribution is meant to pursue the question of which means of indoctrination and manipulation in the context of education in the primary level of elementary school were developed and employed by National Socialist educationalists in In the focus of the observation there is an analysis of primers, in particular the reconstruction of didactic ways of knowledge communication as well as the topical structure of primers, especially the Presentations of Hitler in National Socialist primers.

Research on the history of reading primers: a call for enhanced cross-border cooperation more. Throughout Europe, studies on the history of reading primers are as a rule characterised by three features. First, they are conceptualized as national research, and they are rooted in discourses of national history; second, they tend to First, they are conceptualized as national research, and they are rooted in discourses of national history; second, they tend to tackle research questions and use methodologies of a single academic discipline; third, they have a clear focus on primers which implies that they abstract away from other educational media produced and used to support literacy acquisition.

In this paper I argue that, the power and the merits of such approaches notwithstanding, research on educational media for literacy instruction can profit enormously from research, which is truly international and interdisciplinary. This paper discusses potentials of such cross-border research. It does so by drawing from observations made in the context of activities of the Reading Primers Special Interest Group RP-SIG , a network established five years ago and aimed at the international collaboration of scholars and organizations with an interest in the history of educational media for literacy instruction.

At the cutting edge of education: learning to teach and teaching to learn more. Pedagogical perfection was the objective she strived to achieve, Pedagogical perfection was the objective she strived to achieve, continuing and completing her training abroad. She was well educated for women of that period, and was very aware of gender inequality. She became one of the most distinguished teachers in the history of Spanish Teacher Training Colleges, where she incorporated new methodologies into the initial training of teachers. She contributed to our knowledge society with a significant number of written works on new educational approaches.

Committed to her democratic ideals, she provided assistance to children and adults during the Spanish military rebellion and subsequent civil war; she finally had to abandon Spain to avoid being punished. She took refuge in Paris and from there set off for Mexico. Despite being uprooted she continued with her political activities linked to Spain and her professional development. A life full of meaning, an innovative woman who never gave up teaching or researching, even on her new continent, motivated by an indelible dream of returning to her homeland.

Retrospectives and prospects more. He makes a distinction between the on-going improvement in the scientific quality of the pedagogy, and the shifting of teacher training to an academic level, a turn which in few decades has caused an enormous expansion of chairs, which did not correspond to an adequate level of deep knowledge. As part of a series of studies on the Tridentine pastoral, this article aims to analyze the main pedagogical directions which guided the education of the clergy in caring for souls in the ministry of the Word after the Council of Trent, As part of a series of studies on the Tridentine pastoral, this article aims to analyze the main pedagogical directions which guided the education of the clergy in caring for souls in the ministry of the Word after the Council of Trent, by examining two works written by the bishop of Verona Agostino Valier, at the request of the Archbishop of Milan, Carlo Borromeo: the De rhetorica ecclesiastica ad clericos libri and the Homiliae in Evangelia secundum ritum Ambrosianum.

The article reconstructs the genesis of these works through analysis of the correspondence between the two prelates and studies their contents and purposes, with attention to the more general process of the regeneration of preaching as praecipuum munus of the bishop and clergy in cura animarum promoted in the aftermath of Trent. This essay retraces the origin and development of the Institute for the deaf and dumb in Genoa by examining abundant archival material that has not been investigated up to now.

The Institute was assigned to create a model for the It is a wide ranging study which, unlike the few types of angiographic and commemorative publications available on this topic intends to highlight the complex interweaving among a plurality of political, religious, social, educational dimensions within which this particular historical experience places itself and unfolds. Author of numerous pedagogic Author of numerous pedagogic essays, he promoted a new catechetical method, defended the teaching of pagan classics in the school, and fought the battle for the freedom of education.

In this field, his commitment concurred to approve in France the Falloux law and the Reform of higher education He had a considerable influence in Italy as well, where he brought new perspectives in the pedagogical and school debate. The article focuses on the meaning and features of this influence.

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The European Enlightenment which began disembarking in the New Spain by the end of the 18th century carried cogent ideas about the importance of building a public education system for the prosperity and strength of a State. By the end of By the end of the Independence, Mexican politicians and intellectuals undertook a project for transforming the subjects of the Crown into citizens of the Republic. The significant presence of indigenous peoples in Mexico caused heated discussion in the decision-making arena of power, because their languages, customs, and their ways of producing and conceiving life were considered an obstacle in the route to modernity.

This was done by recovering the official speeches reproduced in the administration memoirs, and the educational policies implemented by the state governments for the elementary level, from the Mexican Independence and until the ends of the 19th century. Maria Montessori et la France. This article deals with the first twenty years of the presence of the Montessori Method in France.

Several initiatives took indeed place, but they remained insubstantial because they were almost always the result of efforts carried by single persons rather than institutions. According with the simultaneous development of the Italian and the English The publisher Edoardo Perino had an important role in the late XIX century in the widening of readership in Italy and also in modernizing the Italian and, moreover, Roman book market.

Article excerpt

Very well-known at that time, during the XX century he Very well-known at that time, during the XX century he was forgotten because his publishing firm closed just two years after his death and his reputation has been lost to such a degree that nowadays he is known only among few Italian book historians. School life is silently conditioned by the container in which students respond to institutionalized cultural solicitations.

It is a very different experience crossing the marble threshold of a grand palace and ascending imposing It is a very different experience crossing the marble threshold of a grand palace and ascending imposing staircases to reach majestic corridors and halls, or climbing the small stairs of an anonymous building to enter rooms similar to those where housewives cook. To help this myth become established, building policies and detailed rules on school spaces and furnishings were put in place in Genoa as well as in the rest of the Country.

The figure of Father Giuseppe Vavassori : his educational and formative values more. Father Giuseppe Vavassori, affectionately known as Don Bepo, was a figure of some importance in Northern Italy and in particular in the local Church and city of Bergamo from the s up to the s. Parish priest to mountain Vavassori founded the Patronato San Vincenzo, a charitable institution inspired by the educational model of don Bosco, with the aim of providing a home for disadvantaged, abandoned or orphaned children and youths. The charity houses set up by Don Bepo at various locations across the city and province of Bergamo, in Sanremo Italy and Bolivia, still today continue to receive large numbers of youth and in general to assist those who are most in need.

This article focuses on the School of Education and domestic economy of Bergamo from the birth to In this historical period many little girls worked in factory and the school of Bergamo was addressed to the young workers to In this historical period many little girls worked in factory and the school of Bergamo was addressed to the young workers to teach them the household.

It was a way to transmit a traditional idea of the woman and of her duties. Before being able to implement this project was necessary, however, to form teachers of household: the school also had this purpose. The School of Education and domestic economy born in Bergamo was the first of its kind in Italy, however, the most important and long-lived.

The complex changes which took place in the political systems of the central European region after were manifested in all spheres of public life. The following study focuses on specific features of the educational system in the The following study focuses on specific features of the educational system in the Slovak territory after the First World War. The study deals with major issues that occurred as a result of the post-war situation and were closely related to the formation of the new Czechoslovak state. Besides some key factors which influenced the transformation and development of education legislation, the issue of language and national identity , it also discusses individual levels of education.

In relation to the changes in the system of education in the studied period, the spread of female education in its various institutionalized and non-institutionalized forms is mentioned. This model generally subordinates a woman to a man, situating her primarily in the domestic domain as wife and mother. Upon completion of the Civil War, with the victory of the rebel soldiers, the new dictatorial regime led by General Franco, fused together in the so-called Movimiento Nacional National Movement its various political sources, including the Falange, forming an ideological magma known as National-Catholicism.

La ginnastica nelle scuole primarie milanesi nel primo decennio postunitario more. This essay reconstructs the series of events that led to introduction of gymnastics in Milan single-sex primary schools immediately after Unification — that is, before the De Sanctis Law of made it compulsory — reflecting the local This essay reconstructs the series of events that led to introduction of gymnastics in Milan single-sex primary schools immediately after Unification — that is, before the De Sanctis Law of made it compulsory — reflecting the local traditions pre-Unification and interest in the teachings of R.

Obermann in Turin. It shows the consideration given by the City of Milan of gymnastics as an educational tool at a time when most City Councils were experiencing difficulties and delegated the responsibility of such instruction to gymnastic clubs. As this research suggests, throughout the s, not only did the City Council of Milan introduce the practice of physical exercise in primary schools, it also encouraged training of teachers, sending them to dedicated government-organized courses in Turin.

Moreover, in order to create adequate practice spaces, the City Council of Milan established a public gymnasium that soon became a meeting place for gymnasts and an endorsement of gymnastics in contemporary society. By teaching gymnastics, which had a strong military connotation, the City Council of Milan complemented its primary school teaching programs, promoting the physical and moral regeneration of its citizens so as to prepare younger generations to face their civic duties — especially the males, who had to become the soldiers of the newly born nation. The schooling process and teacher training in the Italian colonial region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil more.

The article was produced within the scope of an inter-institutional project and analyses memories of women teachers who worked in the Italian Colonial Region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The time period we used was to , which The time period we used was to , which was important from the standpoint of the expansion of the public school system in Brazil. Our theoretical referential were the contributions of Cultural History, and methodologically, Oral History.

Twelve interviews were chosen. The memories allow a glimpse of the school process and teacher training, selection and working conditions of the teachers. We concluded that most teachers began their training as lay people, having studied at most until the so-called 5th Book, which means approximately 5 years of school.

Throughout their career, some of them took further training courses, others taught themselves. Several of them began teaching very early, on average between the ages of 13 and 15 years. Most of the teachers were recognized and valued, and took on tasks in the community, such as religious education catechesis. The narratives also allow one to note that until the beginning of the s, in the Italian Colonial Region, there were predominantly multi-grade classes with individual teaching.

Educazione alla vita politica. Despite its large number of works devoted to education, the philosophy of Ortega y Gasset has been scarcely analysed in regard to the theme of pedagogy. In addition, this has often been treated as a secondary aspect of his multifaceted In addition, this has often been treated as a secondary aspect of his multifaceted thought. Contrary to this opinion, the article aims at demonstrating that his theorisations on pedagogy were strictly connected with his overall philosophical account, playing a central role in it, for instance strongly interplaying with his notions of practical and vital reason.

As it will be proved, in his famous Meditaciones del Quijote he tried to merge educational and political reform, conceiving education as the unique means through which Spain and its people could have reached better material, and spiritual, conditions. Thus, defining education as a precondition for political life, in his long activity he developed an overall theory of social construction according to which only through educational practices individuals could have had the opportunity to grasp a better understanding of the structure of the society in which they lived, being in this way apt to actively intervene in it, willing to reform, rather than destroy, their habitual social relations.

History of emancipatory worldview of Muslim learners more. Acquiring the knowledge to serve the people is the main theme of knowledge and Education in Muslim perspective. Historically this is rooted and integrated with knowledge and education. While Islamic education has been introduced all This paper argues that this failure is the result of their intellectual poverty, and it will be resolved if the authority of contemporary Islamic education integrates Islamic epistemological views with the contents of education.

Therefore, in order to empower the Muslim learners with the capacity to emancipate the human, this paper suggests looking back to the history. Then only Muslims will succeed to benefit the world otherwise they may fail to do so. The history that is discussed here will affect the attitude of Muslim learners to other contemporary civilizations, teaching learning practice. This paper finds that the emancipatory worldview can be propelled among the Muslims if the current pedagogy acts as a moderator between the content and the history. Una nueva manera de interpretar los cuadernos escolares: las escrituras al margen more.

The Pedagogical Museum Center of University of Salamanca CEMUPE has an archive that contains approximately one thousand notebooks that have been classified according to different categories, the oldest one from Written materials Written materials that vividly show how schoolwork used to be and how it has evolved along the years. These school materials help us feel closer to past times, to everyday school practice when teaching children. They also allow us to get close to life outside the school, since they display all those components from the social, political or family sphere which students and schoolteachers found most interesting, and which were written on paper.

From all these materials we are just going to make use of those pages which offer information directly related to two areas: one that is objective and rather formal, the explicit curriculum worked at school; and another one called subjective and sentimental. Thoughts and feelings, these are the key issues. We will analyse, study and transfer a cultural background which is still valuable for present day school and the one to come in the near future. Citizenship model in an informational society more. This paper analyses the differences and similarities in treating the topic This paper analyses the differences and similarities in treating the topic Citizenship in a global world in five textbooks, three in Spanish for the State and two in Basque for the Basque Autonomy.

Even though they all follow the curriculum, the State publications place citizenship at a planetary level, with insistence on the economic reading of progress rich and poor countries ; whereas the Autonomic ones place more importance on the political exercise of citizenship at autonomic, national and European level. It first describes the cultural and scientific context of the need to develop educational actions around the historical educational heritage that are increasingly targeted and diversified.

The authors then focus on the analysis of educational experiences developed at the School Museum of Macerata during its first two years of public activity, to offer a contribution to the current debate on the new scenarios that characterize the restoration and enhancement of historical educational heritage. This paper is about the history of Maylander publisher. His antiquarian bookshop, later sold to poet His antiquarian bookshop, later sold to poet Umberto Saba, was frequented even by James Joyce. Recent studies by L. This is an exemplary case which serves to describe the causes of the decline of a Studium generale.

The University of Macerata was the first to be established in the Papal region of Marca , operating over two and a half centuries it contributed towards the spread of culture and the teaching of professional bodies in the region. Its decline began to manifest itself from the second half of the seventeenth century and led to the University of Macerata being downgraded to a secondary education institute during the Napoleonic era and then, during the Restoration period of the Papal States, to a second order university.

The causes behind this were numerous: the excessive proliferation of university establishments in Papal Marca unique in Europe at the time for its high number which led to a reduction in student numbers; the lack of adequate funding which meant the teaching support guaranteed by local Jesuit schools was indispensable; the corporative nature of the teaching body which was averse to any type of reform policy. The two recent books on the University of Macerata offer a contribution for identifying the role of minor universities in Italy at the turn of the 19th and the 20th centuries. We consider the legislative profile, the relationship We consider the legislative profile, the relationship centre-periphery, the association citynation, cornerstone of the unitary Italian state and of the polycentric university system.

Attention is also given to the presence of a single faculty in Macerata, Law School, and to the limits and opportunities for Macerata in the century of the legal profession. The recent books of Luigiaurelio Pomante on the University of Macerata offer an important contribution for identifying the role of minor universities in Italy. On the basis of a careful analysis of recently published books, the author On the basis of a careful analysis of recently published books, the author examines the evolution of the Italian university system between the nineteenth and twentieth century with special reference to the minor universities.

Imparare a scrivere lettere more. Imparare a scrivere lettere nella scuola italiana tra Otto e Novecento, tries to draw a quick but comprehensive picture on Imparare a scrivere lettere nella scuola italiana tra Otto e Novecento, tries to draw a quick but comprehensive picture on the most recent works of history of education and of the history of the school and the main areas of study in which it is possible to understand ferments of great interest. In this context, the book of Targhetta is an interesting document of the new frontiers of educational history for its ability to value sources until now unpublished, for the intelligence demonstrated in reading them and interpreting them.

Storia ed evoluzione. In this article we have attempted to investigate how, in the second half of the twentieth century, it has come to set up a comparison between the neurobiological paradigm, motivated scientist with a pedagogical one, fingerprint humanist, In this article we have attempted to investigate how, in the second half of the twentieth century, it has come to set up a comparison between the neurobiological paradigm, motivated scientist with a pedagogical one, fingerprint humanist, to the most recent tendencies of transhumanist thought.

A setting that, through the theory of knowledge of school in Santiago, evidenced especially by the work of Maturana and Varela, there comes widely argued in its educational implications, with the dense pages of Morin. This is the theoretical framework that supports our argument. The clarification seems important to us because, as we learn from Bateson, the epistemological framework of our thinking determines the questions we ask and the procedures that we follow to find answers, to build solutions to problems, to come up with new ideas.

Determines, therefore, the points of view. We started from the hypothesis that the sciences that study the life neurobiology, cognitive neuroscience, biology and those dealing with education can not speak foreign languages between them. The most recent studies show that as much life as education shall be on a multiplicity of levels of organization.

Epistemology , Evolution , Edcuation , and Pedagogical theory. New education and active school in Europe in the early 20th century. Models, themes and figures more. The text is about a brief review of a work of interpretation and reconstruction of the characterizing aspects of the complex season of educational, didactic and pedagogic innovation that took place at the beginning of the twentieth The text is about a brief review of a work of interpretation and reconstruction of the characterizing aspects of the complex season of educational, didactic and pedagogic innovation that took place at the beginning of the twentieth century, which led back to the movements of the New Education and the Active School, within the initiatives promoted by the Department of the Educational Process of Catania University that has given the literature of the sector original investigative tracks.

Anatomy of a university discipline between teaching, scientific research and cultural presence more. Freinet Pedagogy in Romania more. This paper intends to highlight the need for complementary education. In Romania, as we try to This pedagogy is student orientated and the teacher is a facilitator for guiding the students when they need it or ask for help.

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The objectives of the Freinet Association provide an introduction and ongoing training as well as the development of cooperation between academic staff and international movement teachers interested in the renewal and modernization of education. In recent years, the Faculty of Education in the University of Salamanca Department of Education History and Theory has become the driving force behind a remarkable quantity of cultural events and initiatives. Held every one or two years, each of these conferences provides a forum for wide-reaching, in-depth discussion between scholars and university lecturers, and is accompanied by the publication of a large volume of the proceedings, edited by Professor J.

Of late, a particular focus of these proceedings has been the European influences on higher education, and the many repercussions of EC rulings, in accordance with the Bologna Process. Research interests have consequently shifted to the various European nations and their relations with the Spanish-speaking world, whether harmonious or characterized by criticism and debate, first France in , then Germany in , Great Britain in , and, most recently, Italy in The aim of this paper is to sum up the recent conference on the Italian influences, to elucidate not only how and to what extent the pedagogical theories developed in Italy have altered the methodology and praxis of teaching in Spain, Latin-America and Africa, but also which concepts and authors have been better received than others.

European Studies , History of Education , and Pedagogical research. The school textbook: a source and didactic tool more. The essay introduces the articles of the dossier School textbooks and teachers training between past and present. The dossier aims to contribute to the establishment in the field of textbook of that bond between research and training The dossier aims to contribute to the establishment in the field of textbook of that bond between research and training which for some time has been present for other historical sources.

The focus is on the role of school textbooks not only as a source for researchers, but also as an instrument for the training of the new generations of teachers. The history of mathematics education and textbooks in France in the 19th and 20th centuries more. This publication aims at drawing attention to two distinct topics: the lack of research on French mathematics textbooks for middle school, and their interest not only as texts but also as objects made by humans in a specific place and This publication aims at drawing attention to two distinct topics: the lack of research on French mathematics textbooks for middle school, and their interest not only as texts but also as objects made by humans in a specific place and time.

Publishing textbooks and education books can sometimes represent an important part of what mathematics teachers do, and also be a way for them to gain social recognition. Making Angels. Bodily restraints championed in French school textbooks on moral values more. This paper examines all the textbooks available in the CEDHRE archives textbooks on moral values for primary, junior and secondary schools from the s until these textbooks were abandoned in It shows that the moral values It shows that the moral values recommended in school textbooks remained generally constant although subject to some noteworthy modifications.

At all teaching levels moral prescriptions and prohibitions corresponded generally to the Christian cardinal sins. Regarding bodily restraints, systematically presented as prohibited are: greed, sloth, lust and wrath.

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But other elements play a role in the prescriptive system: temperance, the need to work, and the prohibition of suicide and mutilation. Provenance: A. Still a nice copy. In Lycosthenes published the first separate edition of Julius Obsequens, a Latin writer on prodigies. The publication was a success, and so, he undertook the present work.

He believed that prodigies or portents had a religious significance and that they show "God's anger and severity towards crimes, and fortell great changes in the world". He admits that such occurrences often had natural causes, but that God was ultimately in control. His work of is arranged in a chronological order. It begins with the serpent talking to Adam and Eve and goes through to the year of publication. The woodcuts demonstrate land- and see monsters, siamese twins, meteorite falls such as the Ensisheim fall in , hailstorms, shower of stones by volcanic eruptions, destroyed towns by earthquakes, plagues of locusts, comets and solar- and lunar eclipses.

The illustration on p. The work was also published the same year in German. Vielleicht das am reichsten illustrierte Buch jener Zeit" Ackermann. Mutder; many vignetts and illustrations in text. Binding slightly scratched, headband on the top partly torn. Number of time stamped and ensured with old owners-comments. Very good condition. Extremely rare. Seller Inventory A Published by Lugduni [Lyon], Sumptibus Ioan. Huguetan, From: Charbo's Antiquariaat Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Small 4to. Complete with additional engraved title, title in red and black with engraved publisher's device, engraved portrait by C. Audran, woodcut diagrams in text. Index, errata-leaf. Vellum a bit wrinkled; few worm holes in inner hinges; early inscription on both titles, few scattered lib. Two volumes in one. In addition to Galileo's texts, this edition includes following conclusion of the Dialogo the introduction to "Astronomia nova" pp.

Period full vellum over boards, titled in manuscript to spine, edges speckled black, plain period end papers. A handsome, unsophisticated copy, rare in this condition. Vellum soiled and stained, scattered minor foxing, some thumbing to final few leaves, but a tight, clean example. Carli and Favaro Dibner 8 and Norman Galileo's discoveries with the telescope described in Sidereus nuncius, in , confirmed his belief that the Sun is the center of the solar system and Earth a planet, as Copernicus had argued.

But by , the Inquisition had pronounced Copernican theory heretical, and Galileo was admonished not to "hold or defend" it. Then in , Maffeo Cardinal Barberini, friend, admirer, and patron of Galileo for a decade, was named Pope Urban VIII, and granted Galileo permission to write a book about theories of the universe but warned him to treat the Copernican theory only hypothetically. In it, Galileo gathered together all the arguments mostly based on his own telescopic discoveries for the Copernican theory and against the traditional geocentric cosmology put forth by Ptolemy and Aristotle.

The Dialogo takes the form of a discussion between a spokesman for Copernicus, one for Ptolemy and Aristotle, and an educated layman for whose support the other two vie. Reaction against the book was swift. The pope convened a special commission, which recommended that the Inquisition bring a case against Galileo. Galileo confessed to having overstated his case and was condemned to life imprisonment, though he never spent a day in a dungeon; the Dialogo remained on the Inquisition's Index of prohibited books until The two new sciences with which the second book deals are mechanics and motion kinematics.

Together, they underlie modern physics, and the Two Sciences is considered the "first modern textbook in physics" Dibner , "not only because it contains the elements of the mathematical treatment of motion, but also because most of the problems that came rather quickly to be seen as problems amenable to physical experiment and mathematical analysis were gathered together with suggestive discussions of their possible solution. With few exceptions always identified , we only stock books in exceptional condition, with dust jackets carefully preserved in archival, removable polypropylene sleeves.

All orders are packaged with care and posted promptly. Satisfaction guaranteed. Seller Inventory BB About this Item:. Pp contain ''Perioche ex introductione in Martem Joannis Kepler''. Pp '' Epistola r. Pp ''Sententia cardinalium in Galilaeum. Bound in contemporary ivory coloured vellum, old manuscript ex-libris in the margin of the title ''? Nice and very good complete copy. This is the first Leiden edition of the Dialogo Fourth Latin edition, Fifth edition overall bound with the first Latin edition third overall of the '' Tractatus de motu '' on mechanics and kinematics.

The ''Systema cosmicum. Copernicus maintained that the earth was moving around the sun. The second book on mechanics is considered by Dibner Dictionary of Scientific Biography to be the first modern textbook on physics. Newton claimed he derived the first two laws of motion from this book. Title page printed in red and black. With woodcut vignette to t. Original calf restored. The first edition of this work to include Turkish material: an early, important collection of sources on Byzantium, Turkey, and the Islamic world, containing writings by Laonikos Chalkokondyles "Historiarum de origine ac rebus gestis Turcorum libri X" , Nikephoros Gregoras "Historiae Byzantinae libri XI" , Johannes Zonaras, and Niketas Choniates, as well as additional material by several other writers on Turkey.

Some brownstaining and waterstaining throughout; a few repaired paper flaws near beginning and end. VD 16, H Adams H Atabey Blackmer Hoffmann II, f. Published by Heirs of Ottaviano Scoto, Venice Signatures: 2a4 A-Q 8 R-S 6. Place, printer and date from colophon on leaf S6r. Text in two columns, astronomical and astrological woodcut diagrams in text.

Contemporary limp vellum soiled and browned, repair to upper cover, first free endpaper torn with loss. Text only very little age-toned, first few leaves including title slightly dust-soiled and stained, title-page with small hole and erased inscription, faint dampstaining to few pages elsewhere, but generally quite clean and bright internally.

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  8. Provenance: Eramersce Bedermi; ex-libris Sunerzini inscriptions on second free endpaper. Salius first published in Venice. The first Latin edition of Ptolemaeus' Quadripartitum alone was first printed by Radoldt in Ptolemaeus' Quadripartitum Greek: Tetrabiblos is divided into four books: the first is a defence of astrology and technical concepts, the second deals with the influences on earth including astrological geography and weather prediction , and the third and fourth discuss the influences on individuals.

    The volume contains also a half dozen other works of astrological interest. The original Greek text was published for the first time in by Camerarius, and in by Melanchthon. Thorndike discusses the Quadripartitum at great length I, and stresses its influence on later writers.

    Condition: ISTC. Separate pagination and register for the Epistles. Register at end.

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    Capital spaces with guide letters. Final blank leaf not present. Text in Latin. Bound in later full calf, boards with blind stamped borders enclosing decorated panels; spine in compartments with raised bands with contrasting title label, gilt. All edges gilt. Outer side margins of first four leaves restored. Loss of lower corners of H with some words replaced in facsimile ink and paper restored.

    Occasional margin stains and some early attractive marginalia in Latin and some worming, largely confined to margins with no significant loss of text. Otherwise a fine crisp copy.


    A selection of the works of the Roman stoic philosopher, Lucius Annaeus Seneca c. It includes a brief life of Seneca which precede the contents listed above; the Epistles to Saint Paul, beginning the second part, are generally considered to be spurious. A fine example of Venetian printing, this is a reprint of the Treviso edition of , the earliest edition having appeared in Naples in These three versions were some of the first printed works to make available the ethical and moral philosophy of Seneca to a Renaissance audience.

    A fine copy of this rare incunable of Only copies of this title exist in libraries world wide, of which nine are held in the UK. From: Maggs Bros. Fine full-page title woodcut x mm by Hans Burgkmair repeated on verso , incorporating a xylographic titles showing the 'Sancta Mater Ecclesia' enthroned with a complex allegory depicted below her see below , both woodcuts boldly and skilfully highlighted in red; initials, underlining and rubrication throughout in red. First edition of Stamler's dramatic dialogue comparing the religions of the Tartars, Turks, Saracens and Jews, illustrated by a superb Hans Burgkmair woodcut; a prefatory letter contains a very early reference to Columbus and Vespucci.

    I do not make any mention of the newly discovered islands, but of Christopher Colom, their discoverer, and of Albericus Vespucius; on the discovery of the New World to whom our age is chiefly indebted behold what treatise I send you.? The Latin being? De insulis autem inventis mentionem nullam facio; sed Cristoferi Colom earundem inventoris et Alberici Vespucii de orbe moderno invento quibus etas nostra potissimum debet quos tibi presentibus tractatulos mitto conspicias.? Burgkmair's magnificent woodcut is an ambitious attempt to reproduce the ideas of the author graphically.

    It shows a seated female figure representing the Church with the globe as a footstool; she sits before a tent, surrounded by the banners of the Papacy and the Empire. The Pope and Emperor kneel before her and on a lower step sit four queens representing the four false religions, each bearing a banner with a broken staff. Below them are the figures of the disputants who take part in the dialogue: Dr. Oliverius, theologian, Balbus, historian, Rudolphus, a layman, Arnestes, an apostate, Samuel, a Jew, and Triphon, natural philosopher.

    In the lower left are the arms of Stamler and his initials, in the lower right Burgkmair? Hans Burgkmair was the foremost woodcut designer of the early 16th century in Augsburg and became the chief designer for much of Emperor Maximilian's print projects. Rupe notes,? Edited by Wolfgang Aittinger Later 16th century ownership inscriptions on verso of otherwise blank last verso.

    A scattering of small wormholes affecting one or two letters. VD16 S Harrisse Church JCB I, Burgkmair: Hollstein V, Dodgson II, Muther Due volumi rilegati in uno; in Folio mm x ; Vol. I: carte non num. II: carte non num. Complessivamente l'opera contiene 19 grandi tavole fuori testo incise in rame, molte ripiegate, fra cui 7 carte geografiche con il mappamondo con le correnti marine ed altre con raffigurazioni di sole, luna, vulcani Etna, Vesuvio ; 5 piccole tavole tecniche, sempre in rame; 7 tavole sinottiche, oltre a decine di illustrazioni in rame alcune a tutta pagina e oltre silogr.

    Piena pergamena coeva con titolo manoscritto al dorso. Prima edizione di questa celebre e curiosa opera del gesuita Kircher Caillet "La plus curieux des ouvrages. Divisa in 13 libri tratta di geologia, idrografia, meteorologia, vulcanologia, storia naturale, alchimia, che viene condannata ridicolizzando Paracelso, fossili, metallurgia.

    Qualche difetto alla legatura. Merrill, "The Mundus subterraneus, perhaps the most popular of Kircher's works in his day and the best known in ours. The basis and impetus. He prefaced the work with his own narrative of the trip, including his spectacular descent into Vesuvius upon his return to Italy. But the work is not solely geologic. Kircher continues with fantastic speculations about the interior of the earth, its hidden lakes, its rivers of fire, and its strange inhabitants.

    Major topics include gravity, the moon, the sun, eclipses, ocean currents, subterranean waters and fires, meteorology, rivers and lakes, hydraulics, minerals and fossils, subterranean giants, beasts and demons, poisons, metallurgy and mining, alchemy, the universal seed and generation of insects, herbs, astrological medicine, distillation, and fireworks, In this work he discloses his experience with palingenesis. Much of the work deals with alchemy.

    Caillet Casanatense Two volumes in 2? I: 13 not numbered leaves out of 15, missing allegorical titlepage and Privilegium , pagg. II: plates non num. All together the book contains 19 large engraved plates out of text, many folded; 5 small technical plates; 7 synoptical plates, beyond about 60 other plates engraved in text and over woodcuts, illustrating animals, monsters, astronomical diagrams, fossils, alchemic instruments.

    Full contemporary vellum with manuscript title. The work is based on Kircher's visit to Sicily in in which he witnessed the eruptions of Etna and Stromboli. His observations of these volcanoes led him to conclude that the centre of the earth is a massive internal fire for which the volcanoes are mere safety valves. The work is not only geological and Kircher continues with fantastic speculations about the interior of the earth, its hidden lakes, rivers of fire and strange inhabitants.

    It includes discussions about the moon, the sun, eclipses, ocean currents, meteorology, hydraulics, minerals and fossils, poisons, metallurgy and mining, alchemy, herbs, astrological medicine, distillation and fireworks. Caillet "La plus curieux des ouvrages. About this Item: The international journal for the history of cartography Vols.